An excerpt from the book:
"ARCHIVAL SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF FINNISH CANADIANS
Edward W. Laine National Archives of Canada 395 Wellington Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N3 613-995-5138 ISBN:0-662-56435-9
ABBREVIATIONS
AASSC Association for the Advancement of Scandinavian Studies in Canada ACTRA Association of Canadian Television and Radio Artists CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CC Central Committee (of the CPC) CEC Central Executive Committee (of the CPC) CCF Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Co-Optas Co-operative Trading Association of Sudbury Limited CPC Communist Party of Canada CRTC Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission FCASF Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports Federation FOC Finnish Organization of Canada FS/CPC Finnish Section of the Communist Party of Canada FS/WPC Finnish Section of the Workers' Party of Canada FSOC Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada FSS/WPC Finnish Socialist Section of the Workers' Party of Canada IWW Industrial Workers of the World NEC National Executive Committee (of the CPC, FOC) OBU One Big Union SDPC Social Democratic Party of Canada TUEL Trade Union Educational League WPC Workers' Party of Canada YCFO Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization YCL Young Communist League
A BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE FINNISH-CANADIAN COMMUNITY
Finnish immigrants began to filter into Canada in growing numbers around the early 1880s. Many of them have since made their home here. According to the available census data, Canadians of Finnish origin numbered 15,497 by 1911, 43,885 by 1931, and 59,346 by 1961. They gradually declined to 52,315 in 1981, owing in part to the lessening tide of immigration from Finland in recent years. In the course of their settlement in this country, Finns have contributed their native languages (perhaps as many as 85 to 95 per cent of the newcomers spoke Finnish, and the balance, Swedish), maternal culture and religious beliefs as well as pre-migration economic and social aspirations to the Canadian scene. This they did by founding churches, temperance and cultural societies, sports clubs and consumer co-operatives, as well as by publishing newspapers, magazines and books to satisfy their own needs and to assist one another to integrate into Canadian life. By imparting various elements of their ancestral knowledge, experience, skills and institutions to other Canadians, Finns have added significantly to the development of Canadian society.
Precursors to the First Wave of Finnish Immigration, 1875(?)-1899
As relative latecomers in the great trans-Atlantic migration of Europeans to North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Finnish immigrants were first drawn to "Amerikka"-that is, the United States of America-in the early 1860s. By the outbreak of World War I, more than 200,000 Finns had made their way to the shores of this continent, most of them settling in the United States. From there, many made their way into Canada in search of work and land to farm. Because the Finnish-American community was older, much larger and better established than its Canadian counterpart, the influence that it exerted on the early development of the Finnish-Canadian community was second only to that of the motherland. However, because of the heavy traffic flow of Finns that soon arose across the Canada-United States border, the same might well be said of the later Finnish-Canadian influence on the Finnish-American community. By the turn of the twentieth century, the growing stream of Finnish settlers from the United States and Finland had begun to coalesce into tiny communities at such places as Nanaimo, British Columbia; New Finland, Saskatchewan; and Copper Cliff, Port Arthur, Sault Ste. Marie and Toronto, Ontario. Already the first manifestations of organized Finnish communal life had appeared in 1890 with the founding of the Lännen Rusko Raittiusseura (Western Glow Temperance Society) and the North Wellingtonin Suomalainen Kirkko ja Seurakunta (North Wellington Finnish Lutheran Church and Congregation) at North Wellington, British Columbia. Thereafter, temperance societies and churches were established wherever sufficient numbers of immigrant Finns had concentrated. The initial emphasis on religion and religious institutions was a logical outgrowth of the predominant cultural values and attitudes that the earliest Finnish settlers brought with them from the Old Country These precursors to the first great wave of Finnish immigration to Canada were primarily a politically conservative and piously religious agrarian folk who had been deprived of their traditional livelihood by the mounting industrialization of Finland's agricultural economy. Whatever their economic motives for being drawn here-whether to find employment in Canada's great railway and canal construction projects, in her growing mining and lumbering industries, or in some other occupation for the purpose of amassing sufficient funds to buy a farm here or back home in Finland-almost everyone supported the establishment of Finnish church congregations and temperance societies to combat the "evils" plaguing them on Canada's industrial frontier. However, the fact that an unusually large number of religious dissenters were included in this group meant that there was no unanimity on which denomination to support. Thus, the Laestadians, or Apostolic Lutherans, who were seeking release from the bonds of the state church in their old homeland -the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland-now sought to make use of the religious freedom that they enjoyed here to establish their own non-conformist congregations. Meanwhile, the more traditionalist element founded religious institutions that adhered to the Suomi-Synod, a federation of Finnish congregations in the United States and Canada that chose to recognize the spiritual and moral authority of Finland's state church. While some Finns felt the need to join other churches for want of a Finnish congregation in their local area, others deliberately chose to join "Canadian" churches as a means of integrating themselves into the Anglo-Canadian mainstream. Many of these churches encouraged this inclination, especially the Presbyterian and United Churches, whose missionaries were noted for their zeal in proselytizing amongst the Finns and other "foreigners" with the aim of "Canadianizing" them. One of the earliest and most distinguished of their Finnish converts was the Reverend Arvi I. Heinonen, who first served in the Presbyterian Church and, once it was formed, in the new United Church of Canada. His long career as a successful preacher won him a large following in the Finnish community. The Swedish-speaking Finns also had another option, that of joining a Swedish congregation in order to worship in their own native language. An early example of such a linking of Swedish and Finnish co-religionists occurred in the case of St. Ansgarius Lutheran Church in Port Arthur, Ontario. Given their extremely small numbers in Canada before World War I, and the facility with which they were generally able to move into either the Finnish, Swedish or Anglo-Canadian communities, the Swedish-speaking Finns had neither the resources nor the incentive to create their own independent religious, cultural or social institutions. Moreover, because it was far easier for Swedish-speakers to learn English than for Finnish-speakers, Swedish-speaking Finns were generally better able to integrate themselves into the Anglo-Canadian community than were their Finnish-speaking compatriots. Hence, the former did not feel compelled to maintain the same degree of communal adhesion and collective activity that was so characteristic of the latter. Yet, the fact remains that Canada's adherence to the right of religious freedom was to have profound consequences on the whole of the Finnish-Canadian community. These consequences were twofold: the first was the creation and deepening of sectarian rifts that divided the community; and the second was the development and elaboration here of new lifestyles and cultural patterns not normally encountered in Finland. Once freed from the rigid class structure and public institutions native to the Old Country the Finns in Canada could now evolve their own uniquely Canadian socio-economic patterns and cultural content. Like other peoples who preceded or followed them here from every corner of the globe, these Finns both shaped and were shaped by their new homeland, thereby creating an identifiable Finnish presence that was truly indigenous to this country.
The First Wave of Finnish Immigration, 1900-1914
Roughly a third of all Finnish immigrants to Canada arrived between 1900 and the outbreak of World War I. This first great wave of Finnish immigration issued from the fact that Finland was then undergoing a major economic transformation as well as being in the throes of an explosive political crisis vis--vis her "russifying" sovereign, Nicholas II, who ruled as Tsar of All the Russias and Grand Duke of Finland. These disruptions proved so severe to the working-class poor that, in certain regions of Finland, as many as twenty per cent of the landless rural and urban workers were forced to seek a new life abroad. Because so many of these working-class emigrants had also forsaken religion for the secular doctrines of socialism as their new road to salvation, the haalit (halls) of the Finnish-Canadian community were marked by a spirit of increasing secularization and radicalization after the turn of the century. The first secularized, local Finnish cultural society made its appearance in 1902 with the founding of the Toronton Suomalainen Seura (which was legally incorporated in Ontario under the name of Finnish Society of Toronto). Similar societies were subsequently established in many other centres of Finnish settlement. Secular and free-thinking by nature, these Finnish cultural Societies quickly became hotbeds of socialist thought. That enthusiasm for Socialism increased even more when news arrived here of the remarkable successes achieved by the working class in Finland in forcing concessions from the Imperial Russian Government through the Suurlakko (Great Strike). This was a paralysing general strike mounted by Finnish workers in the grand duchy in conjunction with other anti-government activities undertaken by Russian revolutionaries elsewhere in the empire during the period of the Russian Revolution of 1905. The lesson that the Finnish-Canadian socialists drew from the Suurlakko was that they should join with other like-minded elements in Canada to create a united socialist movement here. Thus, in 1905, the Finnish Society of Toronto established under its auspices the Socialist Party of Canada's first Finnish Socialist Branch-the Toronton Suomalainen Sosialisti Liitto (Finnish Socialist League of Toronto). Thereafter, other societies followed suit, with the result that many new Finnish Socialist Branches were added to the ranks of the party. In contrast, the Finnish community's earlier interest in single-purpose temperance societies was already beginning to wane, and its drive to establish new Finnish church congregations floundered until the advent of renewed immigration from Finland during the 1920s. Other manifestations of the increasing fascination of Finns with socialism in one form or another included the establishment of the Kalevan Kansa (Kaleva's People) colony at Sointula (Place of Harmony) on Malcolm Island in 1901. This colony, which was led by Matti Kurikka and A.B. Mäkelä, embodied the famed Finnish attempt to fashion a utopian socialist community in the wilds of British Columbia. As one of its more ambitious undertakings, the colony founded Aika Printing Company Limited, which published Aika (Time), the first Finnish-language newspaper in Canada, from 1901 to 1904. With the bankruptcy of the colony's parent Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company Limited, the more secular-minded radicals became the dominant force in the community. They founded the Finnish Publishing Company Limited in Port Arthur, Ontario, together with its newspaper Työkansa (The Work People) in 1907, the second Finnish-language newspaper in this country. When the company failed in 1915, Työkansa ceased publication and its printing equipment was sold to a group of more conservative Finns who put out the non-socialist Canadan Uutiset (The Canada News), the first of its kind and the oldest Finnish-Canadian newspaper still in existence. Before the end of the decade, the secularized, socialist Finnish societies had become a significant force not only in the Finnish community, but also in the Socialist Party of Canada. However, in 1910, most of the socialist Finns were expelled from the party because of a quarrel with its leadership. These "dissidents" then decided to form their own Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada (FSOC; in Finnish: Canadan Suomalainen Sosialistijärjestö) in 1911. They were also instrumental in the founding of the Canadian Socialist Federation in 1911, an organization that subsequently reconstituted itself as the Social Democratic Party of Canada (SDPC) later in the same year. Moreover, the radical Finns demonstrated their wholesale support of these new parties by affiliating the FSOC with them. Serious rifts also developed in the community as relations worsened between the more conservative, religious-minded "Church" Finns and the radicals. These rifts deepened during the course of World War I-especially after the outbreak of a short, brutal and bloody civil war in Finland between the "Red" and "White" factions during the first quarter of 1918. Because the "Whites" had used German assistance to defeat the "Reds," the Canadian government declared Finland to be an enemy country and began treating all Finnish residents in Canada as "enemy-aliens" under the powers of the War Measures Act. Although it initially suspended all Finnish organizations and newspapers, the government quickly shifted its attention to the radical left as it succumbed to the hysteria of the "Red Scare" that swept across North America in reaction to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Thus, its real aim soon became the quashing the "Red" FSOC, its newspaper Vapaus (Liberty) and their supporters, rather than the "Church" Finns, their organizations and newspaper Canadan Uutiset, which, in fact, constituted the prime support of the "White" regime in Finland. Hence, the government permitted Canadan Uutiset to reappear before the end of 1918, but delayed Vapaus's publication until almost a year later. Following its suppression in 1918, the FSOC was not allowed to resurface until severing its ties with the SDPC. It did so to obtain the approval of the authorities, dropping the word "Socialist" from its name to signify this new independent status when it resumed operations in 1919. With the lapsing of the War Measures Act in 1921, this "provisional" Finnish Organization of Canada was again "reconstituted" as the FSOC. While the effect of the government's actions under the Act may have persuaded some of the more timid radicals to withdraw their support from the Finnish-Canadian working-class movement, these measures did not prove sufficient to quash the movement altogether.
The Second Wave of Finnish Immigration, 1920-1931
Although the total number of persons leaving Finland after the war drastically declined from pre-war levels, most of them were destined for Canada, because the United States had placed a severe quota on Finnish immigrants entering that country. As a result, Canada was inundated by a second great wave of immigration from Finland that was wholly comparable to the first. Seared by memories of the recent turmoil in the Old Country, the newcomers reinforced and enlarged the splits between the "Red" and "White" factions here. The intense rivalries issuing from this dichotomization of the community greatly accelerated the growth and diversification of Finnish organizational structures and activities during the inter-war period. Once buttressed by the battle-hardened veterans of the Red Guard newly arrived from Finland, the majority of socialist Finns were propelled into the "Communist" camp. Under the leadership of A. T. Hill, the PSOC was transformed into the Finnish Socialist Section of the Workers' Party of Canada (FSS/WPC; in Finnish: Canadan Työläispuolueen Suomalainen Sosialistijärjestö) in 1922. Because "Communist" organizations were still forbidden to operate openly at that time, the Workers' Party of Canada then served as the "A" party or above-ground "mass" organization for the underground Communist Party of Canada (CPC)-code-named the "Z" party-that had been founded in Guelph, Ontario, in the previous year. The FSOC, in becoming an integral component of the Worker's Party, subjected itself to that party's discipline, policies and objectives as enunciated by the leadership of the "Z" party. A small minority of Finnish labour radicals, who had become enthusiastic supporters of the One Big Union (OBU) and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) during the wartime hiatus of the FSOC, refused to submit to "Communist" control. Instead, they stubbornly clove to the IWW and its "revolutionary" principles. Even after the IWW folded, that organization's Finnish section continued to operate independently for several decades under its former name-the Canadan Teollisuusunionistinen Kannatusliitto (CTK Liitto; Support League of Canadian Industrial Unionists). In time, however, the radicalism of its adherents tended to moderate, and the locally based "socialist clubs" of the CTK Liitto gradually evolved into "social clubs." Meanwhile, the FSS/WPC, in seeking to distance itself from rival socialist groups like the CTK Liitto, expunged the word "Socialist" from its own name in 1924. Thereafter, it officially became known as the Finnish Section of the Workers' Party of Canada (FS/WPC; in Finnish: Canadan Työläispuolueen Suomalainen Järjestö). Then, in 1924, the FS/WPC adopted a new identity as the Finnish Section of the Communist Party of Canada (FS/CPC; in Finnish: Canadan Kommunistipuolueen Suomalainen Järjestö). With the "bolshevization" of the Party in 1925, all of its foreign-language sections were dissolved. In response to this, the FS/CPC transferred its social, cultural and educational operations to the Finnish Organization of Canada (FOC; in Finnish: Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö), Inc., a corporate body that originally had been established under federal charter in 1923 to serve as the legal owner of record of the FSOC's considerable assets. However, on becoming the central cultural institution of the Finnish-Canadian working-class movement, the FOC quickly grew to include nearly a hundred locals spread across the country from Quebec to British Columbia. Among its many social, cultural and educational undertakings, the FOC established a play rental agency, the Canadan Suomalaisten Järjestön Näytelmävarasto (FOC Play Inventory), in the mid-1920s and later sponsored play-writing contests to encourage the flowering of Finnish-Canadian theatre. In 1934, the FOC nurtured the development of the Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization (YCFO; in Finnish: SJ Nuorisoklupit). The following year it saw to the incorporation of Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, first, for assuming responsibility for the FOC's own "in-house" publishing arm and newspaper, Vapaus, and secondly, for initiating new ventures such as the publication of Liekki (The Flame), a literary weekly. Throughout the late 1920s and the 1930s, the FOC also actively supported the involvement of its membership in the activities of such organizations as the Canadan Suomalaisten Työläisten Urheiluliitto (Finnish Canadian Workers' Sports Association) and its successors, the Workers' Co-operative of New Ontario Limited and the Lumber [and Agricultural] Workers' Industrial Union of Canada, as well as other organizations associated with the radical left in Canada. The heavy influx of new arrivals from Finland (which ended in 1930 with the worsening of the Great Depression) also included a large contingent of former adherents of the White Guard, most of whom were absorbed into the conservative faction of the Finnish-Canadian community. The presence of these new "White" Finns sparked a revival of religious interest and activity in the community that manifested itself in the establishment of new congregations belonging to the Suomalainen Evankelis-Luterilainen Kirkko (Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church), that is, the denomination that represented Finland's state church in Canada. The "White" newcomers also spearheaded the founding of locally based Suomalaiset Kansallisseurat (Finnish National Societies) during the late 1920s. By the early 1930s, these nationalistic societies managed to unite themselves under the umbrella of the Central Organization of the Loyal Finns in Canada (later renamed the Loyal Finns in Canada; in Finnish: Kanadan Kansallismielisten Suomalaisten Keskusliitto [originally, Keskusjärjestö], and subsequently, Lojaalien Suomalaisten Keskusliitto) as their means for combatting the influence of the "Red" FOC and securing employment exclusively for their "reliable, `White' membership" in times of severe economic depression, unemployment and radical agitation across Canada during the "Hungry Thirties." The number of Swedish-speaking Finns in this country also increased as the result of the great tide of inter-war immigration from Finland, particularly on the West Coast where Swedish-speakers tended to gravitate. Like many of their Finnish-speaking compatriots who arrived here at that time, these newcomers also displayed a heightened sense of Finnish nationalism. The effect of that patriotic fervour was shown in the dramatic spread into Canada from the United States of the Order of Runeberg, a Swedo-Finnish organization that soon was able to boast of thriving member lodges in Vancouver and many other parts of British Columbia. Indeed, the intensity of Finnish nationalism felt by both Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking "White" Finns was such that the two groups were sometimes persuaded to forget their age-old linguistic antagonisms in favour of sponsoring a variety of co-operative endeavours as a viable alternative to the attractions of the FOC, as they did, for example, with their fielding of a joint athletic club in Vancouver. Finland's "White" government also sought to nurture the rising spirit of Finnish patriotism and conservatism sweeping through the Finnish-Canadian community during the inter-war years. Its base of operations in Canada was the consulate that it had established in Montreal during the early 1920s and upgraded to the status of consulate general in 1925. Akseli K.L. Rauanheimo, who served first as consul and then as consul general until his death in the early 1930s, became the chief instrument in achieving his government's aims. For example, he championed the establishment of the Montrealin Pyhän Mikaelin Suomalainen Luterilainen Seurakunta (St. Michael's Finnish Lutheran Congregation of Montreal) and Montrealin Suomalainen Seura (Finnish Society of Montreal). He also enlisted the aid of the Suomen Merimieslähetysseura (Finnish Seamen's Mission Society) in Helsinki, which complied by sending Pastor Frithjof J. Pennanen to Canada in 1927 with a mandate to establish and maintain a Suomalainen Siirtolaiskoti (Finnish Immigrant Home) in Montreal. Because Montreal was the major port of entry and stopover for incoming Finnish immigrants, these institutions effectively served as purveyors of official Finland's religious and political ideologies to the new arrivals who, once resuming their journeys to other parts of the country, would then propagate these views across Canada. The political authority of the FOC was challenged from another quarter as well. A small group of social democrats led by Reinhold Pehkonen and Bruno Tenhunen broke away from the FOC and Vapaus in 1931, eventually establishing their own publishing house with its newspaper Vapaa Sana (Free Press). The leadership of that group also tried to associate itself with the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), a new Canadian political party that was based on social-democratic principles. They, especially through their control of Vapaa Sana, succeeded in establishing themselves as the primary opposition to the FOC in the community by the outbreak of World War II. The Great Depression itself, of course, wreaked hardship on the Finnish-Canadian community. The most recent newcomers from Finland were most affected by the economic crash, for they had not yet had time to learn either the English or the French vernacular and otherwise adapt themselves to the needs of a shrinking employment market. Rather than waste away in bread lines and soup kitchens, many of them abandoned Canada for supposedly "greener pastures" in the United States or returned in disgust to Finland. The Finnish-Canadian working-class movement was particularly hurt by the reemigration phenomenon of the 1930s, for, in addition to those losses of its members to the United States and Finland that it shared with the rest of the community, it also suffered the further loss of some 2,000 of its most active and dedicated veterans, who emigrated to Soviet Karelia between 1930 and 1935 in the belief that they could find a better future in the "building of socialism in one country" there. It also lost some of its most promising younger members to the Spanish Civil War-those who had voluntarily enlisted in the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion to fight and die on behalf of the doomed Republican government in its losing campaign of 1937-1938.
The Third Wave of Finnish Immigration, 1948-1961
World War II proved to be a trying experience for the Finnish-Canadian community. First, it witnessed the defeat of Finland at the hands of the Soviet Union in the Winter War of 1939-1940, an event that further served to alienate its "Red" and "White" elements. Then, from June 1940 until late 1943, the FOC was banned under a new invocation of the War Measures Act. When Finland launched its Continuation War of 1941-1944 in concert with Germany's attack upon the Soviet Union, the Canadian government once more declared Finns in this country to be "enemy-aliens." When forced to capitulate to the Soviet Union in 1944, Finland was saddled with paying an onerous reparations bill to her former enemy as well as having to relocate many of her citizens who had been forced to abandon their homes in those Finnish territories that were now ceded to the Soviets. Finland's desperate plight elicited such widespread sympathy here that, for once, the whole of the Finnish-Canadian community united under the auspices of the Canadan Suomiapuyhdistys (Canada-Finland Aid Society Fund) in the common cause of collecting monies for her postwar recovery. With the normalization of relations between Canada and Finland, a third great wave of Finnish immigration washed upon these shores. For the most part, these immigrants were anti-Soviet and anti-Communist, and, therefore, eschewed the FOC for harbouring sympathies to the contrary. Therein lay one of the chief reasons for the FOC's decline in popularity and influence since the war's end. Also contributing to the FOC's post-war decline was the fact that the ravages of time were inexorably thinning its ranks of loyal veterans who were not being replaced by their Canadian-born offspring. The younger generations being better assimilated into the Canadian mainstream and more upwardly mobile than their parents, found little to attract them in the activities of a left-wing immigrant organization, especially after it had become the focus of the government's extreme displeasure during the era of the Cold War and the spread of McCarthyism into Canada. Meanwhile, the right-wing elements in the community were being rejuvenated and revitalized by the heavy influx into their midst of a younger generation of immigrant Finns. Despite their underlying antipathy towards the radical left, most of these newcomers still prided themselves on being "apolitical." As the influence of these post-war immigrants grew, it was they who largely determined the demise of such highly politicized, right-wing institutions as the Loyal Finns in Canada, the "political neutralization" of others like Vapaa Sana, and the creation of a new "non-political" national umbrella association, the Kanadan Suomalainen Kulttuuriliitto (Finnish Canadian Cultural Federation), about the turn of the 1970s to coordinate the staging of the Kanadan Suomalaisten Suurjuhlat (Finnish Canadian Grand Festivals) and to promote other cultural activities and aspirations of its member organizations at the national level. Even so, this "de-politicization" of the more conservative elements in the Finnish-Canadian community proved not much more successful in healing the breach between the "White" and "Red" Finns than did the earlier transformation of the chief institutions of the latter (that is, the FOC and related associations) from frontline political agencies of the radical left into predominantly cultural institutions. In other words, the historic differences dividing "Reds" and "Whites" in the community were too powerfully felt to allow for any reconciliation between the two sides even to the present day. Nonetheless, there have been signs of a new dynamic emerging in the community during the last few decades, the effect of which has yet to be fully documented and understood.
The Finnish-Canadian Community from the 1960s to the Present
As the result of declining immigration from Finland since the early 1960s, the now-predominant "apolitical" element has already fallen heir to the same problems of an aging membership that previously afflicted the Finnish-Canadian left. Moreover, the few Finnish immigrants now entering this country generally appear to be less willing to participate in organized activities of the community than were their predecessors. As a group, they are better educated and better equipped with professional, semi-professional and linguistic skills than were any of their earlier-arriving compatriots. Consequently, they usually do not feel the same need to belong to, sponsor and maintain "ethnic" support organizations of the type associated with earlier arrivals here. Other factors have also led to new attitudes and organizational aspirations in the Finnish-Canadian community. Most important of these has been the growing acceptance by Canadian society of the notion that Canada largely comprises a nation of immigrants and their descendants. Because this has made this country a more receptive, tolerant and generous land towards her newcomers, there has been less need on the part of recent Finnish immigrants to band together into "defensive" associations to protect themselves against the ill will of overtly hostile nativists as was often the case in earlier decades. Moreover, the intervention of federal, provincial and local governments with policies of multiculturalism has also contributed both to the diminution of nativism in Canadian society and the changed focus of organizational life in the Finnish community. Then, too, many of the younger Finnish Canadians have begun to appreciate the precious uniqueness of their heritage and are now actively seeking to preserve it. The archival documents that are now being created by the Finnish-Canadian community should eventually tell us what the end results of those new developments in the community will be.
RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF CANADA
The National Archives of Canada is a federal government department that serves as the national archival institution for the historical records of the federal government and also preserves the private papers and nongovernmental records of individuals and organizations of national interest that have contributed to the development of Canadian society. Through the Finnish Canadian Archives Program, begun in 1974, the National Archives acquires and preserves for use by researchers records of national significance relating to the Finnish-Canadian community. Staff archivists of the National Archives Building, 395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, can be consulted weekdays from 8:30 a.m. until 4:45 p.m. Some research rooms are open to registered researchers 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Researchers are urged to contact the archivist responsible for the Finnish Canadian Archives Program prior to their visit to the National Archives for information regarding access to collections listed in this guide. Access to certain collections requires written permission from the donors. Researchers should also note that portions of the National Archives' holdings have been microfilmed and may be borrowed through the interlibrary loan program without visiting Ottawa. Information of particular interest to researchers of the Finnish-Canadian past can be found among the holdings of the various divisions of the National Archives: the Manuscript Division, the Government Archives Division, the Documentary Art and Photography Division, the Moving Image and Sound Archives, the Cartographic and Architectural Archives Division, and the National Archives Library. In the National Library of Canada, which is a separate government department located in the same building as the National Archives of Canada, researchers have access to a variety of Finnish-language newspapers, books and penodicals, as well as other publications in the official languages containing information on Finnish Canadians.