An excerpt from the book:
"ARCHIVAL SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF
Edward W. Laine
National Archives of Canada
395 Wellington Street
AASSC Association for the Advancement of Scandinavian Studies in Canada
ACTRA Association of Canadian Television and Radio Artists
CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
CC Central Committee (of the CPC)
CEC Central Executive Committee (of the CPC)
CCF Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
Co-Optas Co-operative Trading Association of Sudbury Limited
CPC Communist Party of Canada
CRTC Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
FCASF Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports Federation
FOC Finnish Organization of Canada
FS/CPC Finnish Section of the Communist Party of Canada
FS/WPC Finnish Section of the Workers' Party of Canada
FSOC Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada
FSS/WPC Finnish Socialist Section of the Workers' Party of Canada
IWW Industrial Workers of the World
NEC National Executive Committee (of the CPC, FOC)
OBU One Big Union
SDPC Social Democratic Party of Canada
TUEL Trade Union Educational League
WPC Workers' Party of Canada
YCFO Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization
YCL Young Communist League
INDEX OF MAJOR SECTIONS
- FINNISH CANADIAN ARCHIVES PROGRAM
- AIKA, newspaper (est. 1901)
- ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCANDINAVIAN STUDIES IN CANADA
- ASSOCIATION OF CANADIAN TELEVISION AND RADIO ARTISTS
- BENSON FAMILY, Mattawa, Ont.
- CANADA ETHNIC PRESS FEDERATION (1958- )
- COHEN, J.L. (1897-1950)
- COMMUNIST PARTY OF CANADA
- COPPER CLIFF, Ontario: St. Timothy's Lutheran Church (est. 1897)
- EKLUND, William (1906-1985)
- ESKOLA FAMILY (fl. 1911-1934)
- FENNOS ATHLETIC CLUB (1931-1932)
- FINNISH ASSOCIATION (Suomalainen Osasto) of Port Arthur, [Ontario]
- FINNISH CANADIAN AMATEUR SPORTS FEDERATION (est. 1925)
- THE FINNISH CANADIAN REST HOME ASSOCIATION (Suomalais-Canadalainen Lepokotiyhdistys) (est. 1958)
- FINNISH CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE OF VANCOUVER (1965-1968)
- FINNISH IMMIGRANT HOME (1927-1932)
- FINNISH ORGANIZATION OF CANADA COLLECTION
- National Office and Related Records
- Records of the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada et al.
- Records of the Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
- Records of the `Illegal" Finnish Organization of Canada
- Records of the Finnish-Canadian Democratic League
- Records of the Associations of Finnish Democrats
- Records of the Ad Hoc Committee to Legalize the "Illegal" Finnish Organization of Canada
- Records of the Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
- The Finnish Organization of Canada Play and Music Collection
- Regional and Local Records
- Records of the District Committees of the Finnish Socialist
Organization of Canada/Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
- The Records of the Finnish Society of Toronto, Local No. 1 of
the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada/Finnish
Organization of Canada, Inc.
- Records of Other Locals of the Finnish Socialist Organization of
Canada/Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
- Youth Organization Records
- The Records of the National Office of the Youth Clubs of the
Finnish Organization [of Canada]
- Records of Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization Affiliates and
Other Youth Clubs Associated with the Finnish Organization of
- Sports Organization Records
- Records of the Keski-Ontarion Voimistelu-ja Urheiluseurojen
Yhteistyöjärjestö (The United Work Organization of the Central
Ontario Gymnastic and Athletic Clubs)
- Records of the Canadan Suomalaisten Työläisten Urheiluliitto
(Finnish Canadian Workers' Sports Association)
- Records of the Workers' Sports Association of Canada
- Records of the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation
- Records of the Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation
- Records of Local Finnish-Canadian Sports Clubs Associated with
the Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports Federation and its Predecessors
- Publishing Company Records
- Records of the Finnish Publishing Company Limited (Port Arthur, Ontario)
- The Records of Vapaus/Vapaus Publishing Company Limited (Sudbury, Ontario)
- Archives Records and Holdings
- The Records and Informational Holdings of the Finnish Canadian Archives
- Records of Other Canadian Organizations Associated with the
Finnish Organization of Canada and its Adherents
- Records of the Finnish-Canadian Labour Movement
- Records of the Finnish-Canadian Co-operative Movement
- Records of Other Finnish-Canadian Organizations
- Records of Other Non-Finnish Canadian Organizations
- Records of Finnish-American Organizations
- Records of Organizations in Finland
- Records of International Organizations
- Finnish-Language Newspapers and Serial Publications
- Other Newspapers and Serial Publications (Chiefly in the English Language)
- Finnish-Language Monographs
- Other Monographs (Chiefly in the English Language)
- Microfilmed Records
- Microfilmed Selections from the Finnish Organization of Canada
Collection at the National Archives
- FINNISH WAR VETERANS IN CANADA (Montreal Branch) (est. 1935)
- FRONTIER COLLEGE (est. 1899)
- HELLMAN, George
- HUNNAKKO, Leo (fl. 1977)
- JOUPPI, Einar Michael (1893-1978)
- KANGAS, Victor (1902-1973)
- KATAINEN, P. (fl. 1910-1932)
- KENT, Abbo (1912- )
- LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY, Library
- LI-RA-MA (Russian Consular Records) COLLECTION
- MACKENZIE-PAPINEAU BATTALION COLLECTION
- Victor Hoar Papers
- Edward Cecil Smith Papers
- Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Papers
- MANSFIELD, Lempi Dagmar (b. 1904)
- MARKKANEN, Kyllikki (Kay) (fl. 1950-1979)
- MONTREAL, Quebec: St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church
- MONTREAL FINNISH NATIONAL SOCIETY (1930-1931)
- MONTREAL SUOMI SOCIETY, Inc. (est. 1927)
- PULKKINEN, Hans (1910- )
- RITARI, A.R.M. (1906- )
- SCANDINAVIAN CANADIAN CLUB OF TORONTO
- SCANDINAVIAN CENTRE CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION LIMITED, Edmonton, Alberta
- SOINTULAN NUORISO LIITTO, Sointula, B.C.
- SOINTULAN S. S. OSASTO N:O 7, Sointula, British Columbia
- SORA,Eeva(1919- )
- STADIUS, Sven (1899-1977)
- SUKSI, Edwin L. (1906-1982)
- SUOMALAINEN KANSALLISSEURA (Loyal Finns in Canada) ASSOCIATION (1928-1976)
- SÄILÄ, Vilho (1886-1980)
- THUNDER BAY, ONTARIO, St. John the Evangelist (Anglican) Church, and St. Ansgarius (Lutheran) Church
- TOMBS, Laurence Chalmers (1903- )
- TOPPILA, Kyösti Eemili (Eemil) (1886-1958)
- VANCOUVER FINLANDIA CLUB
- VANCOUVER FINNISH ORGANIZATION OF CANADA LOCAL NO.55
- VAPAA SANA PRESS LIMITED (est. 1931)
- VIITA (ISOVIITA) FAMILY, Val d'Or, Quebec
- WRIGHT, Helen and Bill (fi. 1921-1967)
- YLÖNEN-ENROS, Matti Ensio (1915-1985)
- YRITYS ATHLETIC CLUB OF TORONTO (est. 1906)
- OTHER ARCHIVAL SOURCES ON FINNISH CANADIANS
- OTHER SOURCES AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF CANADA
- Documentary Art and Photography Division
- Government Archives Division
- Moving Image and Sound Archives Division
- SOURCES AT OTHER INSTITUTIONS
- In Canada
- In Finland
- In the United States
- In the Soviet Union
FINNISH CANADIAN ARCHIVES PROGRAM
The Manuscript Division has custody of original documents
received from former prime ministers, governors general,
politicians, public servants, private individuals and
non-governmental corporate bodies such as business, social and
cultural organizations that have accumulated nationally
significant collections. The Finnish Canadian Archives Program
keeps the major collections relating to Finnish Canadians. The
material in these collections document the social, cultural,
economic and political life of the individuals and organizations
belonging to the Finnish-Canadian community as well as their
participation in the social, cultural, economic and political
life of the nation.
For researchers preparing family histories, the Government
Archives Division preserves many useful departmental record
collections of the federal government and its agencies,
including passenger shipping lists and census records. The
Finnish Canadian Archives Program also keeps several collections
of interest to genealogical researchers. These include: the
LI-RA-MA (Russian Consular Records) collection, which among its
more than ten thousand individual case files contains about a
thousand files dealing with the affairs of Finnish immigrants
who arrived here before World War I; the individual case files
of the Finnish Immigrant Home, which document those immigrants
who came in the 1920s; the birth, marriage and death registers
of St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of
Montreal; the parish registers of St. Ansgarius Lutheran Church
of Port Arthur; the funeral eulogies in the Edwin Suksi papers;
and various publications in the FOC collection. Church records
are usually kept by the individual church congregations,
although several have been transferred to other archival
repositories. Some of these are listed in the Union List of
Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories. Note, too, that the Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) of Salt Lake City,
Utah, has extensively microfilmed the parish records of churches
in Finland, copies of which it makes available to researchers
through the local Stake Genealogical Libraries that it operates
in conjunction with its chapels across Canada.
The standard reference work on researching Finnish family
history is Sukututkijan tietokirja, by Sirkka Karskela. Other
more generalized reference works in the official languages are
available at most public libraries. Tracing Your Ancestors in
Canada is also available from the National Archives in Ottawa.
The National Archives welcomes donations of material relating to
the Finnish community in Canada. Anyone interested in entrusting
material to the National Archives may do so by contacting:
Finnish Canadian Archives Program, 395 Wellington Street,
Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0N3.
ON FINNISH CANADIANS
IN THE MANUSCRIPT DIVISION
The following entries describe those collections in the
Manuscript Division that were created by individuals and
associations belonging to the Finnish-Canadian community, or
that contain substantial documentation relating to the affairs
and activities of that community and its members. As well as
briefly describing a given collection, each entry indicates
whether or not finding aids or file lists have been prepared for
that collection. Such finding aids and file lists, whenever
noted here, refer to more detailed descriptions of a
collection's contents and are available on microfiche from the
National Archives for consultation or purchase.
In addition to the papers and records described in this guide,
the National Archives also holds other manuscript sources that
are useful to the study of the Finnish-Canadian community, but
in which Finnish Canadians play only a minor part. For example,
the voluminous prime ministerial papers of the Right Honourable
Sir Robert L. Borden (MG 26, H) and the Right Honourable William
Lyon Mackenzie King (MG 26, J) contain several small but crucial
files on the Canadian government's treatment of the
Finnish-Canadian community during the two world wars. Additional
material on Finnish Canadians may also be found in the papers of
other prime ministers, senior public servants and other major
figures, as well as in the records of various political parties
and other corporate bodies. The descriptions of such papers and
records are not included here because the references to Finnish
Canadians in those collections tend to be of an incidental
nature or minor in quantity relative to the collection as a whole.
AIKA, newspaper (est. 1901) MG 28, V 85
Aika (Time), the first Finnish-language newspaper to be
published in Canada, was established in 1901 by a group of Finns
as the voice of the famed utopian socialist community, the
Kalevan Kansa colony, which they had also founded earlier in the
same year at Sointula, British Columbia. From April[?] 1901 to
September 1902, Aika appeared as a weekly newspaper edited by
two of the community's leaders, Matti Kurikka and A.B. Mäkelä,
and published by the Kalevan Kansa colony's own Aika Printing
Company Limited of Nanaimo, British Columbia. Aika ceased
publication for more than a year, and then reappeared as a
semi-monthly in a magazine format in November 1903. Owing to
growing financial difficulties, Aika ceased publication
altogether in July 1904. The colony's holding company, the
Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company Limited, went bankrupt in the
following year, ending the colony's experiment in utopian
socialism. Nonetheless, many of the original settlers of the
Kalevan Kansa colony chose to remain at Sointula, and their
descendants continue to live there.
Microfilm, 1901-1904, 1 reel, M-3855.
Microfilmed issues of Aika, 1901-1904, consisting of:
a duplicate copy of a microfilm reel in the possession of the
Thunder Bay Finnish Canadian Historical Society. Note that an
almost complete run of original issues of Aika is also available
in the FOC collection (MG 28, V 46). This material is in the
ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF MG 28,IV
SCANDINAVIAN STUDIES IN CANADA
An "Ad hoc Committee to found an Association for the Advancement
of Scandinavian Studies in Canada" was struck at a meeting held
at Carleton University in Ottawa in the fall of 1979. In
attendance was a small but enthusiastic handful of individuals
interested in promoting the development of Scandinavian studies
in Canada (that is, studies relating to all the Nordic
countries, including Finland as well as Denmark, Iceland, Norway
and Sweden) and of the Scandinavian presence in this country.
Among the participants were academics from various disciplines
(geography, history, literature, sociology etc.), personnel from
several of the Nordic embassies, and members from the local
Nordic community in Ottawa. In June 1982, at the annual
convocation of the Learned Societies then being held in Ottawa,
the ad hoc committee succeeded in organizing an attractive
program for drawing together an array of interested people from
across the country to share in the actual founding of the
Association for the Advancement of Scandinavian Studies (AASSC)
in Canada. Since then, the AASSC has experienced a steady growth
in membership and in the services that it provides. In addition
to meeting annually with the other Learned Societies, the AASSC
publishes a newsletter, the AASSC Newsbulletin. In 1984, it also
inaugurated the publication of Scandinavian-Canadian Studies
under the editorship of Dr. Edward W. Laine, the first in a
series of multi-disciplinary occasional papers on Scandinavian
studies in Canada and abroad.
Originals, 1981-1 985, 20 cm.
The records of the AASSC, 1981-1985, consisting of:
correspondence, draft articles, manuscripts, conference papers,
galley proofs, bulletins and other material relating to the
publication Scandinavian-Canadian Studies and the AASSC, being
the files of Dr. Edward W. Laine, who served as secretary of the
"Ad hoc Committee to found an Association for the Advancement of
Scandinavian Studies in Canada," liaison officer on the Learned
Societies Organizing Committee for the [proposed] Association
for the Advancement of Scandinavian Studies in Canada, chairman
of the Editorial Board and publications officer on the Executive
Committee of the AASSC, and founding editor of
ASSOCIATION OF CANADIAN TELEVISION MG 28,1217
AND RADIO ARTISTS
The Association of Canadian Television and Radio Artists (ACTRA)
is the principal union of actors, broadcasters, dancers, singers
and other professionals employed in this country's radio and
television industry. Included in ACTRA's membership rolls are
various individuals from the Finnish-Canadian community some of
whom have acknowledged that it was their early contact with the
Finnish community's vigorous theatrical life and tradition of
union activism that launched them on their later professional
careers. Paul Siren, who recently retired as general secretary
after nearly twenty-five years of distinguished service in
ACTRA's employ, is a case in point. In his youth, Siren was not
only introduced to the cause of trade unionism through his
Finnish background, but he also received his initial training as
an organizer and administrator while serving as national
secretary of the Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization (YCFO).
He then worked for eighteen years with the United Automobile
Workers Union of Canada. He also spent some five years as a
self-employed labour consultant before joining ACTRA and
becoming a major force behind its rise to the top as one of
Canada's most respected unions.
Originals, n.d., 1943-1982,45.15 m; microfilm, 1943-1944, 2 reels,
The records of ACTRA, n.d., 1943-1982, include the following
Originals, 1943-1972, 12 m.
The records of ACTRA, 1943-1972, consisting of: National Office
files, including minutes, correspondence, negotiation files,
publications and contract files.
Microfilm, 1943-1944, 1952-1972, 2 reels, M-3624, M-3625.
The records of ACTRA, 1943-1944, 1952-1972, consisting of:
microfilmed minutes of the Radio Artists of Toronto Society, the
Canadian Council of Authors and Artists, and ACTRA.
Originals, 1967-1978, 16.8 m.
The records of ACTRA, 1967-1978, consisting of: National Office
Originals, n.d., 1973-1980, 3.5 cm.
The records of ACTRA, 1973-1980, consisting of: publications and
promotional literature of ACTRA relating to its constitution and
bylaws; retirement plan and group insurance benefits; Writers'
Guild directory; introductory literature and policy statements;
and Face to Face with Talent, a pictorial gallery of ACTRA and
Originals, n.d., 1968-1982, 26 m.
The records of ACTRA, n.d., 1968-1982, consisting of: National
Office records, including files on CBC Radio, CBC Television and
film contracts; records of Face to Face with Talent; office
files of Ray Stringer, Margaret Collier, Paul Siren, Jim Keating
and Garry Neil; files relating to the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation (CBC), the Canadian Radio-Television and
Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), and the International
Writers Guild; miscellaneous clippings and publications.
BENSON FAMILY, Mattawa, Ont. MG 55/30, No. 187
Ernst Juhanpoika Karhunen was born on August 18, 1886, in
Kuopio, Finland. From 1903 to 1905, Karhunen was apprenticed to
Liudvig Nobel' [sic; a transliteration from Russian], a mechanic
whose shop was located in the Imperial Russian capital of St.
Petersburg. After completing his apprenticeship in Russia,
Karhunen emigrated to Canada. He then changed his name to Ernest
Benson and became naturalized in 1921. Using a Finnish passport,
he briefly visited the Soviet Union in 1923. Benson's wife, Aino
Elisabeth Hytonen, was born on November 1, 1887, in Keuruu,
Finland. She emigrated with her family to North America in 1913,
and was subsequently naturalized as a Canadian citizen in
1921. At the time of Mrs. Benson's death, the Bensons resided in
the area of Mattawa, Ontario.
Originals, n.d, 1903-1948, 2 cm.
The papers of the Benson family, n.d., 1903-1948, consisting of:
Ernest Benson's Finnish passport (stamped with visa for travel
in the Soviet Union), 1923; his Canadian passport, 1948; Aino
Benson's Canadian passport, 1948; Ernest and Aino Benson's birth
certificates (Finnish), 1948; Ernest Benson's work certificate
(Russian), 1905; three newspaper clippings, n.d. This material
is variously in the English, Finnish and Russian languages.
CANADA ETHNIC PRESS FEDERATION (1958- ) MG 28, V 95
The Canada Ethnic Press Federation was organized in March 1958
by representatives of the Canada Press Club and the Ethnic Press
Association of Ontario. The Canada Press Club was established in
1942 by a group of editors and publishers of ethnic newspapers in
Winnipeg as a means of advancing Canada's war effort and integrating
various ethnic groups into Canadian life. The heavy surge in
immigration into Toronto during the early post-World War II
years led to a remarkable growth in ethnic publishing there, one
result of which was that many ethnic newspaper editors in that
city, including members from the editorial staff of the
Finnish-language Vapaa Sana, began to see the need for having
their own press club. With the encouragement of the Winnipeg
group, they organized the Ethnic Press Association of Ontario in
1951. The Canada Ethnic Press Federation was subsequently
established for the purpose of co-ordinating the activities of
the various ethnic press clubs in Eastern and Western Canada and
of serving as their voice in national affairs.
The establishment of the Canada Ethnic Press Federation also
stimulated the creation of additional branch organizations.
These included the Ethnic Press Association of British Columbia
and the Quebec Ethnic Press Association. The associations were
formed of editors and publishers of ethnic publications located
in Montreal and Vancouver, respectively. Both associations were
actually founded in Winnipeg in 1962, while the ethnic
journalists from those two cities were attending a Canada Ethnic
Press Federation meeting there.
As the national champion of the ethnic press, the Canada Ethnic
Press Federation has striven to define and interpret the needs
of Canada's ethnic groups both to the federal government and to
the country's two dominant cultural groups. It has also sought
to co-ordinate the efforts of ethnic journalists and publishers
in integrating into Canadian society the groups served by their
publications. In its pursuit of these objectives, the Canada
Ethnic Press Federation has presented briefs to the federal
government on such matters as constitutional questions,
government immigration policy, bilingualism, and the mass media
in Canada. It has also sponsored a tour of Quebec by ethnic
editors as well as a tour of the ethnic communities across
Canada by French-speaking journalists, thereby seeking to
promote within each of the many different cultural groups in
this country a greater awareness of the particular problems
faced by the others.
Originals, n.d., 1958, 1962-1973,25 cm; photocopies, 1957-1968,
1972, 2.5 cm.
The records of the Canada Ethnic Press Federation, n.d.,
1957-1973, consisting of: rules and by-laws; minutes; reports;
financial statements; membership lists; correspondence of the
federation executive, including that of Judge J.W. Lindal, Bruno
Tenhunen, Charles Dojack, Dr. J.M. Kirschbaum, Leo J. Lezack and
Vladimir Mauko; briefs, submissions, and resolutions; programs
and agenda; speeches and addresses; clippings relating to the
federation and ethnic community life in Canada; history of the
federation; records concerning affiliates; correspondence, reports,
memoranda, clippings and other material relating to ethnic studies.
COHEN, J.L. (1897-1950) MG 30, A 94
Jacob Lawrence Cohen was a prominent labour and civil rights
lawyer during the 1930s and 1940s. He served as legal counsel
for many of the new industrial unions that were then being
formed, and consequently he became involved in most of the key
labour-management disputes of the period. During the Great
Depression, he defended many left-wing leaders and organizations.
He also acted on behalf of many of the leftists who were interned
during World War II. Among his Finnish-Canadian clientele were the
FOC, the Vapaus Publishing Company Limited and A.T. Hill, a noted
Communist. Cohen also made an appearance at the coroner's inquest
into the deaths of Viljo Rosvall and John Voutilainen, two Finnish
union organizers who had died under suspicious circumstances at
Onion Lake in Northern Ontario.
Throughout his career, Cohen campaigned for progressive social
and labour legislation without compromise. Thus, in 1943, he
resigned his position with the National War Labour Board after
having served for only six months, in protest against the
federal government's policies on wages and collective
bargaining. His legal career came to a sudden halt in 1946, when
he was disbarred for having been convicted on an assault charge.
He was re-admitted to the bar in 1950, but died suddenly four
Originals, n.d., 1923-1951, 10.5 m; Finding Aid No. 1044.
The papers of J. L. Cohen, n.d., 1923-1951, consisting of:
Cohen's case files, including correspondence, legal documents,
notes, printed matter and newspaper clippings pertaining to
cases handled by Cohen, 1927-1949, 9.4 m;
miscellaneous files, including submissions, publications and
other documents of various unions and other organizations as
well as Cohen's notes and manuscripts on a variety of subjects,
such as collective bargaining and publicly funded medical care,
together with unidentified and incomplete documents and notes, n.d.,
1923-1951, 60 cm; scrapbooks, consisting primarily of newspaper
clippings covering both labour matters in general and particular
subjects such as the Ontario textile inquiry of 1937, the 1937
Sarnia sit-down strike, and Cohen's participation on the
National War Labour Board, ca. 1929-1945, 40 cm; miscellaneous
published material from the Canadian Seamen's Union, 1936,
1937-1939, 5 cm.
COMMUNIST PARTY OF CANADA MG 28, IV 4
The CPC was founded as an underground organization in 1921 at a
secret meeting in Guelph, Ontario. The twenty-two delegates at
that meeting included representatives from the Socialist Party
of Canada, the Social Democratic Party of Canada (SDPC), the
Socialist Party of North America, the FSOC and several other
left-wing associations. As the open operation of the new
organization was then prohibited by law, the delegates decided
to hold another convention in 1922 for the organization of a
legal party, the Workers' Party of Canada (WPC), which could act
more openly on the underground party's behalf. The CPC remained
an underground organization known to its members as "Z," and the
WPC as "A." At the 1924 convention, the name Workers' Party of
Canada was finally dropped and that of the Communist Party of
Canada was officially adopted. During those formative years,
Finnish Canadians comprised more than half of the membership of
the entire Communist movement, because the FSOC and its
membership had been absorbed wholly into the structural fabric
of the two parties: first, as the Finnish Socialist Section
(later amended to the Finnish Section) of the WPC and, finally,
as the Finnish Section of the CPC.
"Communist" organizations were declared illegal on three
occasions by the Government of Canada since the end of World War
I. The first time occurred with the promulgation of an
order-in-council under the authority of the War Measures Act in
1918, which occasioned the Communist Party's use of the name
"Workers' Party" until 1924. The second time was in 1931 when
the Bennett government used Section 98 of the Criminal Code to
outlaw the Party. The CPC remained underground until public
pressure forced the government to repeal Section 98 in 1936. The
Party was again outlawed in 1940 by an order-in-council (PC
2363) promulgated under the authority of the Defence of Canada
Regulations. The CPC subsequently re-surfaced as the
Labor-Progressive Party and retained that name until 1959, when
again it became known as the Communist Party of Canada.
The Party is organized into local and regional units across
Canada. At its annual conventions, local and district delegates
meet to decide and vote upon the Party's programs, constitution
and policies. It is also at these conventions that the members
of the Central Committee (CC) and the Central Executive
Committee (CEC) are elected. The CEC is charged with the running
of the day-to-day affairs of the Party.
Perhaps the chief auxiliary of the Party has been the Young
Communist League (YCL). Organized for the younger members of the
Party, its first convention was held under the name of the Young
Workers' League in 1923. It changed its name to the Young Communist
League in 1924. The YCL was disbanded in 1964, and was replaced by
the National Youth Commission in the following year. However, the
dissolution of the YCL proved to be only a temporary measure, for it was
reinstated in 1969.
The CPC has also been closely associated with such organizations
as the Trade Union Educational League (TUEL), the Canadian Labor
Defence League, which became the National Council of Democratic
Rights in 1940), the Canadian Friends of Soviet Russia, the
Workers' Unity League, and the Farmers' Unity League. Among the
other organizations with which its Finnish members have been
most particularly involved were the Lumber [and Agricultural]
Workers' Industrial Union of Canada, the International Union of
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, the Workers' Cooperative of New
Ontario Limited and the Workers' Sports Association of Canada.
Originals, n.d., 1905-1982, 16 m; microfilm, n.d., 1922-1931, 37
reels, H-1575 to H-1648; Finding Aid No. 1481.
The Communist Party of Canada collection, n.d., 1905-1982,
includes the following acquisitions:
Originals, n.d., 1905-1982, 16 m; Finding Aid No. 1481.
The records of the CPC, n.d., 1905-1982, consisting of: National
Office files, 1918-1982, including correspondence, minutes and
memoranda relating to committees, commissions and individuals
concerned with education, federal elections, the federal
government, fraternal organizations, Charles Lipton and other
activities of the National Office, 1918-1982, 2 m; convention and
CC files, including minutes, reports and memoranda concerning
national conventions, the CC and the NEC, 1921-1982, 2.2 m;
provincial files, including correspondence, press releases,
circular letters, and provincial convention material as well as
provincial and municipal election material and subject files
generated at the club, regional and provincial level, together
with circular letters and other material sent by the NEC to the
provinces, 1931-1979, 3 m; subject files, including leaflets,
clippings, memoranda, drafts and correspondence relating to
various interests of the CPC, 1918-1981, 2.6 m; trade
union/labour files, including files relating to the Canadian
Seamen's Union and other unions, n.d., 1910, 1920-1974, 60 cm;
records of the YCL, including correspondence, reports, circulars
and memoranda relating to the NEC, conventions, local clubs and
other organizations as well as general subject files, 1926-1979,
1.1 m; printed material, including pamphlets,
newsletters, bulletins and periodicals created by the CPC and
other organizations, 1905-1980, 5.2 m; scrapbooks concerning the
Stratford Strike and the Workers' Calendar as well as scrapbooks
of press clippings kept by P. Wedro, 1934-1970, 5 cm.
Microfilm, n.d., 1922-1931, 37 reels, M-7376 to M-7413.
The records of the Archives of Ontario, n.d., 1922-1931,
consisting of: microfilm copies of records acquired from the
Archives of Ontario that were deposited there after having been
seized by the Government of Ontario in August 1931 to prepare a
case for the prosecution in the trial of the party leaders of
the CPC. These records include correspondence and printed
material relating to the Worker, the Workers' Unity League, the
Canadian Labor Defence League, Friends of the Soviet Union, and
other activities of the CPC, as well as material directly related
to the trial, for example, the transcripts of its legal proceedings.
COPPER CLIFF, Ontario: St. Timothy's Lutheran MG 9, D7-54
Church (est. 1897)
Established in Copper Cliff, Ontario, in 1897, the Copper
Cliffin Suomalainen Evankelis-Luterilainen Wuoristo-Seurakunta
(Wuoristo Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of Copper
Cliff) is the oldest of the nine Finnish congregations adhering
to the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Canada. In 1962, the
Wuoristo Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church was renamed St.
Timothy's Lutheran Church. Additional information concerning the
church can be found in the Reverend Yrjo Raivio's book, Kanadan
suomalaisten historia (1975).
Originals, 1948, 1957, 2 cm.
The records of St. Timothy's Lutheran Church of Copper Cliff,
Ontario, 1948, 1957, consisting of: one book, Copper Cliff in
Suomalaiset ja Copper Cliffin Suomalainen
Evankelis-Luterilainen, Wuoristo-Seurakunta (1948), by Lauri T.
Pikkusaari; and one mimeographed pamphlet, "Wuoristo Seurakunta
60 vuotias" (1957), edited by Lauri T. Pikkusaari. These
publications respectively commemorate the fiftieth and sixtieth
anniversaries of the Wuoristo Finnish Evangelical Lutheran
Congregation and, in so doing, include much of the history of
the Church and its membership. This material is in the Finnish language.
EKLUND, William (1906-1985) MG 31, H 80
William ("Bill") Eklund was born in 1906 in Pori, Finland. He
emigrated to Canada in 1922, first finding employment in the
construction industry in Toronto and later in the bush camps of
Northern Ontario. In 1932, he became an office assistant in the
FOC's National Office in Toronto, and later served as its
district organizer in the Timmins-South Porcupine-Kirkland Lake
and Thunder Bay regions. In 1937, Eklund joined the editorial
staff of the Finnish newspaper Vapaus in Sudbury and, in 1940,
he was promoted to editor-in-chief. With the exception of his
term of active service with the Canadian Armed Forces in
1943-1944, Eklund held that post at Vapaus (renamed Viikkosanomat
following its merger with Liekki in 1974, but reappearing again
as Vapaus in 1987) until his retirement in 1975. He died in Sudbury in 1985.
Throughout most of his career and up to the time of his death,
Eklund had been a national figure in the FOC, as is suggested by
his four decades of service on its National Executive Committee.
As well, he was extremely active in the affairs of the local
community in Sudbury. Of his work as playwright, author and
translator, he is probably best remembered for his Canadan
rakentajia: Canadan Suomalaisen Järjestön historia vv. 1911-1971
(Toronto, 1983)-an organizational history of the Finnish
working-class movement that has since been translated into
English as Builders of Canada: History of the Finnish
Organization of Canada (Toronto, 1987).
Originals, n.d., 1912-1985,55 cm; Finding Aid No. 1624.
The papers of William Eklund, n.d., 1912-1985, consisting of:
Eklund's personal papers; records arising from his involvement
with the Archives and History Committees of the FOC, as well as
records arising from his organizational activities respecting
the National Office, Central Ontario District Committee, and
Sudbury Local No. 16 of the FOC; records of Eklund's activities
with the Finnish Senior Citizens Club of Sudbury, Inc., and
Vapaus Publishing Company Limited. This material is in the
Finnish and English languages.
ESKOLA FAMILY (fl. 1911-1934) MG 30, C 213
Hilda Eskola was born about 1882. She emigrated from Myllykallio
in the vicinity of Kuusankoski, Finland, to Copper Cliff,
Ontario, about 1910. Hilda, a single mother, was either
accompanied by her infant daughter Laura or gave birth to Laura
shortly upon arrival here. In Canada, Hilda worked for some time
as a waitress. Although she had many suitors in Canada and
abroad, she never married. Neither did Laura, who is reported to
have died about 1982.
Originals, n.d, 1911-1934, 21 cm; Finding Aid No. 1640.
The papers of the Eskola Family, n.d., 1911-1934, consisting of:
private correspondence, n.d., 1911-1934, addressed to Hilda Eskola
and her daughter, Laura, from friends and relatives in Finland,
Canada and the United States. This material is in the Finnish language.
FENNOS ATHLETIC CLUB (1931-1932) MG 28, V 88
The Fennos Athletic Club was established in 1931 to serve those
members of the Finnish-speaking community of Vancouver, British
Columbia, who would have nothing to do with the FOC and its
affiliates. The very name Fennos echoed the spirit of Finnish
nationalism and conservatism of those who were instrumental in
its founding, the membership of the Suomalainen Kansallisseura
(Loyal Finns in Canada) Association -then known as Valistus-ja
Edistysseura Suomi. Following an agreement with the
Swedish-speaking Finns of the Vancouver Lodge of the Order of
Runeberg in 1932, the Fennos Athletic Club was dissolved and its
membership was united with that of the Runeberg Lodge to form a
joint athletic club. The minute book of the defunct Fennos
Athletic Club was later used by a new association, the Finnish
Choir of Vancouver (est. 1945).
Originals, 1931-1932, 1945, 2 cm.
The records of the Fennos Athletic Club, 1931-1932, 1945,
consisting of: a minute book, 1931-1932. The club's minute book
also includes the minutes of the first few meetings of the
Finnish Choir of Vancouver, 1945. This material is in the Finnish language.
FINNISH ASSOCIATION (Suomalainen Osasto) of MG 28, V 137
Port Arthur, [Ontario]
The Finnish Association (Suomalainen Osasto) of Port Arthur,
Ontario, was founded in December 1918. Its purpose was to assume
the responsibilities of the disbanded Port Arthur Local of the
suppressed FSOC. In that regard, this "new" association also
continued to serve as the local of the outlawed organization's
successors, namely, the "provisional" FOC (1918-1920), the
"reconstituted" FSOC (1920-1922), the FS/WPC (1922-1924) and the
Finnish Section of the CPC (1924-1925?). Subsequently, it became
(or was absorbed by) the Port Arthur Local of the FOC, which is
still in operation.
Microfilm, 1918-1925, 1 reel, M-1960.
The microfilmed records of the Finnish Association (Suomalainen
Osasto) of Port Arthur, Ontario, 1918-1925, consisting of:
minutes of the association. This material is in the Finnish
language with the exception of a few English-language entries
made during that period of when the Canadian government had
declared Finnish to be an "enemy language" and prohibited its
use in organizational activities.
FINNISH CANADIAN AMATEUR SPORTS MG 28, V 51
FEDERATION (est. 1925)
The Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports Federation (FCASF) was
originally founded in 1925 under the name of Canadan
Suomalaisten Työläisten Urheiluliitto (Finnish Canadian Workers'
Sports Association). With the aid of the FOC, this association
was able to found or recruit some hundred member clubs in local
Finnish communities across Canada. Seeking to broaden its appeal
among other Canadians, it became successively the Finnish
Section of the Workers' Sports and Gymnastic Association of
Canada in 1929, the Workers' Sports Association of Canada in
1932, and then the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation in 1935.
Following the outbreak of World War II, the Canadian Amateur
Sports Federation was forced to suspend most of its activities.
When it assumed regular operations in 1944, the Federation's
predominantly Finnish membership chose to resurrect their
organization's original ethnic identity. From that time to this
day it has operated under the name of Finnish Canadian Amateur
Originals, n.d., 1928-1987, 1.47 m; Finding Aid No. 634
The records of the FCASF, n.d., 1928-1987, include the following
Originals, n.d., 1932-1973, 42 cm; Finding Aid No. 634.
The records of the FCASF and its predecessors, n.d., 1932-1973,
consisting of: minutes, correspondence, financial records,
reports, bulletins, newsclippings, booklets and other
miscellaneous material of the Workers' Sports Association of
Canada (1932-1935), the Canadian Amateur Sports Association
(1935-1944), and of the FCASF (1944-1973), together with the
latter's records of joint projects and initiatives that it
undertook in concert with the FOC (for this, see also the FOC
collection, MG 28, V 46) and other organizations.
Originals, 1938-1973, 10 cm.
The records of the FCASF, 1938-1973, consisting of: reports,
bulletins, newspaper clippings and booklets.
Originals, 1928-1987, 95 cm.
The records of the FCASF, 1928-1987, consisting of:
correspondence; minutes of FCASF annual meetings; minute books
of the Star Athletic Club of St. Catharines, Ontario, and the
Alerts Athletic Club of Sudbury, Ontario; membership books; financial
records; FCASF track and field records of athletic achievements;
transcripts of interviews; draft notes and manuscripts; sports
programs; music sheets; newspaper clippings; draft newspaper articles;
and scrapbooks. This material, which includes records and other
documentation relating both to the FCASF and its affiliates, was
specifically acquired or created by the Alerts Athletic Club
Historical Committee for the writing and publication of Sports
Pioneers: A History of the Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports
This material is in the Finnish and English languages.
THE FINNISH CANADIAN REST HOME MG 28, V 91
Lepokotiyhdistys) (est. 1958)
The Finnish Canadian Rest Home Association, which was originally
established as the Suomalais-Canadalainen Lepokotiyhdistys in
1958, is a non-profit organization that operates two rest homes
as low-rental housing projects for the elderly in greater
Vancouver. The Finnish Canadian Rest Home opened its doors in
1963, and the Finnish Manor, in 1975. Although the association
functions under a charter from the Province of British Columbia,
it has drawn both significant financial support and clientele from
across Canada as the first Finnish-Canadian enterprise of this type.
Originals, 1962-1976, 2.5 cm.
The records of the Finnish Canadian Rest Home Association,
1962-1976, consisting of: constitution, approved version,
; bulletins, 1962-1976; programs, 1963, 1970, 1975; press
clippings, n.d, 1964; annual financial summaries and reports of
the year's activities, 1975, 1976; miscellaneous certificates
and other forms. This material is primarily in the Finnish language.
FINNISH CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE OF MG 28, V 92
Organized in 1965, the Finnish Centennial Committee of Vancouver
was established as the co-operative effort of five local Finnish
societies, including the United Finnish Kaleva Brothers and
Sisters Lodge. Its chief purpose was to commemorate Canada's
Centennial Year and the Fiftieth Year of Finnish Independence
(both anniversaries occurring in 1967). The committee's
activities included the publication of B.C.:n. Suomalainen:
Uusi Länsi (1967), the organization of several concerts, craft
exhibitions, church services and other public events, as well as
the sale of Centennial memorabilia. Upon its dissolution at the
end of 1967, all of the committee's earnings and assets were
transferred to the non-profit Finnish Canadian Rest Home Association.
Originals, 1965-1968, 3 cm.
The records of the Finnish Canadian Centennial Committee,
1965-1968, consisting of: minutes of committee meetings,
1965-1968; correspondence with the Ambassador of Finland,
1965-1966; correspondence with Suomi-Seura r.y., 1965-1967;
correspondence with Vancouver Local No. 55 of the FOC,
1966-1967; correspondence concerning the Mauno Kuuisto Concert,
1966-1967; correspondence with the NMKY Choir; 1967;
correspondence concerning Finland's Independence Day
celebrations and other activities, 1966-1967; draft program for
the Fiftieth Anniversary of Finland's Independence Day
celebration, 1967. These records document the various activities
of the committee and delineate the relationship that other
activities, 1966-1967; draft program for the Fiftieth
Anniversary of Finland's Independence celebration, 1967. These
records document the various activities of the committee and
delineate the relationship that it enjoyed with other Finnish
societies and individuals in British Columbia and across Canada,
as well in the United States and Finland. This material is
primarily in the Finnish language.
FINNISH IMMIGRANT HOME (1927-1932) MG 28, V 128
Montreal was the port of entry into Canada for thousands of
Finnish immigrants. Disturbed by the lack of facilities for the
care of these newcomers, Akseli K. L. Rauanheimo, the first
Finnish consul in Montreal (promoted to consul general in 1925),
sought to enlist the aid of the headquarters of the Finnish
Seamen's Mission Society in Helsinki, Finland, as early as 1923.
Pastor Frithjof J. Pennanen was sent to Canada in 1927, first,
with a mission to establish a Suomalainen Siirtolaiskoti (Finnish
Immigrant Home) in Montreal, and then to supervise its activities.
The Finnish Immigrant Home began its operations in conjunction
with the newly established Montrealin Pyhän Mikaelin Suomalainen
Luterilainen Seurakunta (St. Michael's Finnish Lutheran
Congregation of Montreal). In addition to the aid that it
received from the local Finnish church congregation and from
Finland, the Finnish Immigrant Home also depended on the
assistance of various steamship companies. With the onslaught of
the Great Depression, the Finnish Immigrant Home faced two major
problems: declining immigration and growing financial
difficulties. As a result, the local Finnish church congregation
relinquished all of its responsibilities in operating the home
to the Suomen Merimieslähetysseura (Finnish Seamen's Mission
Society) in 1931. On May 1, 1932, the Finnish Immigrant Home
finally closed its doors. With its demise, some of the services
once offered by the home continued to be provided by St. Michael's
Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of Montreal.
During the course of its short lifespan, the Finnish Immigrant
Home received more than five thousand guests in its hostelry.
These included Finnish immigrants who settled in Montreal or
moved away to settle in other parts of the country, as well as
seamen and other transients of Finnish origin who were just
passing through the city. The home also provided a placement
service and, in particular, sought to take as many single female
immigrants under its protection as it could.
Originals, 1926-1932, 2.15 m; Finding Aid No. 1136.
The records of the Finnish Immigrant Home, 1926-1932, consisting
of: subject and general correspondence files, 1927-1932, 49 cm;
financial records, including receipts of bills paid,
1927-1930, 35 cm; archives holdings, including miscellaneous
papers and records of individuals and organizations, 1926-1928,
1 cm; guest records, including financial accounts, record books
and informational records relating to clients of the home,
1927-1932, 1.3 m. These records fully document the activities of
the home and, most importantly, they include an extensive card
file and related documentation pertaining to approximately 5,000
clients. In effect, the information relates to possibly one
quarter of the Finnish immigrants arriving in Canada during the
inter-war period. This material is primarily in the Finnish language.
FINNISH ORGANIZATION OF CANADA COLLECTION MG 28, V 48
The Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc., was formally founded
and incorporated under federal charter only in 1923, but the
real origin of the Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö-the name by
which it was popularly known in the Finnish community-occurred
with the founding of the Finnish Socialist Organization of
Canada (FSOC) in 1911. That organization, known in Finnish as
the Canadan Suomalainen Sosialistijärjestö, was established by
Finnish dissidents who had been expelled from the Socialist
Party of Canada. Those Finns, in conjunction with other
non-Finnish comrades who had suffered the same fate, were
instrumental in founding a new socialist party, the Canadian
Socialist Federation. The FSOC affiliated itself with the
federation, which, in the year of its founding (1911), was
reconstituted as the SDPC. From this date and until 1930, the
FSOC and its successors were either affiliates of that party or
the Workers' and Communist Parties of Canada, excepting the
brief interlude of 1918-1919 when wartime government regulations
forced the Finns to operate independently as a "provisional" FOC.
Since dissolving the last of its formal links with those
non-Finnish organizations about 1930, the FOC has jealously
guarded its independence.
Nevertheless, as in earlier years, it has continued to support
the working-class movement both within and outside the Finnish
community. Thus, whether through its political, social or
cultural endeavours, the FOC has provided continuous service not
only as this country's first and oldest active national
organization for people of Finnish origin, but also as the
central institution of the Finnish-Canadian working-class movement.
Originals, n.d., 1881-1983, 48.3 m.; microfilm, n.d., 1908-1930,
1 reel, H-1656; Finding Aid No. 1619.
The FOC collection, n.d., 1881-1983, consists of the following
record groups: National Office and Related Records (Series
I-VIII); Regional and Local Records (Series IX-XI); Youth
Organization Records (Series XII-XIII); Sports Organization
Records (Series XIV-XIX); Publishing Company Records (Series XX-XXI);
Archives Records and Holdings (Series XXII-XXXIV); and
Microfilmed Records. In sum, the collection comprehensively
documents the wide range of social, cultural and political
activities sponsored by the FOC, its predecessors, their
adherents and sympathizers while, at the same time, it serves as
a major resource for documenting the broader historical spectrum
of the Finnish-Canadian past with its multi-faceted complex of
connections with the Canadian, Finnish, Finnish-American and
Russian past as well.
The records in the FOC collection are mainly in the Finnish
language, although a very significant portion of them are also
in English. The contents of the various series and their
arrangement in this collection are as follows:
National Office and Related Records (Series I-VIII)
The National Office Records include the records of the Toronto
headquarters of the pre-war and post-war FOC, Inc., together
with those of its predecessors (that is, the FSOC, the
"provisional FOC, the "reconstituted" FSOC, the Finnish
Socialist Section-subsequently renamed the Finnish Section-of
the WPC, and the Finnish Section of the CPC) and wartime
surrogates during World War II (the "illegal" FOC, the
Finnish-Canadian Democratic League, the Associations of Finnish
Democrats and the Ad Hoc Committee to Legalize the "Illegal'
FOC). Although certain of these series seem to be less than
complete, the National Office records do provide a remarkably
comprehensive account of headquarters activity for the years 1911-1975.
The National Office Records also include the FOC Play and Music
collection. This particular collection stemmed from the fact
that, in addition to its many other activities, the National
Office of the FOC operated a play rental service for the benefit
of its locals. The library of the FOC Play and
Music collection includes scripts of some five hundred Finnish
plays and hundreds of musical scores, songs and lyrics that date
from 1905 to 1967. Although most of this material was acquired
from sources in Finland and the United States, some fifty plays
were written by Finnish-Canadian playwrights and, as well,
numerous pieces of music and songs were contributed by
Finnish-Canadian composers and lyricists.
Records of the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada et al.
Originals, n.d., 1911-1925, 98.5 cm.
The records of the FSOC and its successors, including the
"Ex-Executive Committee" and "Trustees" of the "disbanded" FSOC,
the "provisional" FOC, the "reconstituted" FSOC, the FSS/WPC,
and the FS/CPC, n.d., 1911-1925, consisting of: constitutional
and related records; convention records; election records;
minutes; reports; financial records; correspondence concerning
districts, locals, speakers and organizers, the Finnish
Publishing Company Limited, Vapaus, and external affairs; and
Records of the Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
Originals, n.d., 1923-1940, 3.14 m.
The records of the [prewar] FOC, n.d., 1923-1940, consisting of:
constitutional and related records; convention records;
conference records; minutes; financial records; correspondence
concerning districts, locals, special projects, youth clubs,
speakers and organizers, Vapaus/Vapaus Publishing Company
Limited, and external affairs; divisional and committee records
concerning festivals and the Theatre Division.
Records of the `Illegal" Finnish Organization of Canada
Originals, 1936-1941, 0.5 cm.
The records of the "illegal" FOC, 1936-1941, consisting of:
Records of the Finnish-Canadian Democratic League
Originals, n.d., 1941-1944, 10.5.
The records of the Finnish-Canadian Democratic League, n.d.,
1941-1944, consisting of: convention records; minutes;
correspondence concerning locals, other internal affairs, and
Records of the Associations of Finnish Democrats
Originals, n.d., 1941-1 945, 2 cm.
The records of the Associations of Finnish Democrats, n.d.,
1941-1945, consisting of: Sudbury Regional Committee records.
Records of the Ad Hoc Committee to Legalize the "Illegal"
Finnish Organization of Canada
Originals, 1941-1944,2 cm.
The records of the Ad Hoc Committee to Legalize the "Illegal"
FOC, 1941-1944, consisting of: miscellaneous records
Records of the Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
Originals, n.d., 1943-1982, 2.73 m.
The records of the [post-war] FOC, n.d., 1943-1982, consisting
of: constitutional and related records; convention records;
conference records; minutes; financial records; correspondence
concerning districts, locals, speakers and organizers, Vapaus
Publishing Company Limited, and external affairs; divisional and
committee records concerning the Women's Division, Sports
Division, Youth Division, Theatre Division, Music Division,
festivals, and History Committee.
The Finnish Organization of Canada Play and Music Collection
Originals, n.d., 1905-1967, 5.6 m.
The FOC Play and Music collection, n.d., 1905-1967, consisting
of: scripts, rolebooks, musical scores, etc., of the FOC's own
plays; other FOC plays; plays from the Finnish Drama League in
the United States; plays directly from Finland; Finnish-language
plays from other sources; English-language plays;
Finnish-language plays and other theatrical pieces from
unidentified sources; the FOC Music collection; plays and music
not included in the FOC Play Inventory.
Regional and Local Records (Series IX-XI)
The Regional and Local Records in the collection document the
activities of various affiliates of the FOC and its
predecessors. The records of the District Committees recount the
affairs of those bodies established to coordinate the activities
of the locals within given regions. As a unit, these records
date from 1915 to 1968. However, they include only a few
miscellaneous records from several of the more active District
Committees. In contrast, the records of the Finnish Society of
Toronto form a complete unit from the time of that society's founding
in 1902 and until about 1977. The importance of those records can also
be inferred from the fact that not only was this society the Local No. 1
since the founding of the FSOC in 1911, but it was also the
first local association of Finns in this country to be organized
for purposes other than as a church congregation or a temperance
society. Also included here are records from many other locals
across Canada. As a unit, they date from 1903 to 1973 and,
therefore, provide a significant source of documentation on the
early movement of many Finns to organize secularized cultural
societies as well as on the later development of those societies
as locals of the FSOC, the "provisional" FOC, the FS/WPC, the
FSS/WPC, the FS/CPC, the FOC and its wartime surrogates,
including the Finnish-Canadian Democratic League and the
Finnish-Canadian Anti-Fascist "V[ictory]" League
(Canadan-Suomalaisten Fasismi-vastaisten V-liitto). Note,
however, that the records of most of these locals are rather
fragmentary, although those of a few are fairly complete.
Records of the District Committees of the Finnish Socialist
Organization of Canada/Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
Originals, n.d., 1915-1968, 40 cm.
The records of the District Committees of the FOC and its
predecessors, n.d., 1915-1968, consisting of: miscellaneous
records of the District Committees of Southern Ontario, Northern
Ontario, Central Ontario, Western Ontario,
Manitoba/Saskatchewan, and British Columbia.
The Records of the Finnish Society of Toronto, Local No. 1 of
the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada/Finnish
Organization of Canada, Inc.
Originals, n.d., 1902-1977, 2.66 m.
The records of the Finnish Society of Toronto, Local No. 1 of
the FOC and its predecessors, n.d., 1902-1977, consisting of:
the Archives of the Toronton Suomalainen Seura/Toronton
Suomalainen Sosialisti Osasto, n.d., 1902-1923; records of the
Raittius-ja Työväenyhdistys Taimi/Raittius Yhdistys Taimi,
1904-1908; records of the Toronton Suomalainen Seura/Canadan
Suomalaisen Järjestön Toronton Osasto, n.d., 1902-1977,
including constitutional and related records, minutes,
membership records, financial records, reports, correspondence,
building records, restaurant records, Tarmola Summer Camp
records, Women's Section records, Youth Section records,
Entertainment Committee records, Music Section records, Theatre
Section records, Library Section records, Agitation/Education
Committee records, North End Division records, Ikinuorten
Senior Citizens Club records, Festival records, and publications.
Records of Other Locals of the Finnish Socialist Organization of
Canada/Finnish Organization of Canada, Inc.
Originals, n.d., 1903-1983, 3.07 m.
The records of other locals of the FOC and its predecessors,
n.d., 1903-1983, consisting of: miscellaneous records from Quebec and the
Maritimes, District No. 1 (Paugen Falls and Val-d'Or); Southern Ontario,
District No. 2 (Hamilton, Port Colborne, St. Catharines, Sarnia and
Sprucedale); Northern Ontario, District No. 3 (Cobalt, Connaught
Station, Eby, Hearst, Kirkland Lake, Pottsville, Reesor, South
Porcupine and Timmins); Central Ontario, District No. 4 (Beaver Lake,
Bruce Mines, Burritt-Mattawa, Creighton, Estaire, Levack, Long Lake,
Mattawa, Mond, Neelon Township, Sault Ste. Marie, Stobie Mines, Sudbury,
Trout Lake/Lockerby, Wahnapitae, Wanup and Whitefish); Western Ontario,
District No. 5 (Conmee, Finland, Fort William, Geraldton, Hornepayne,
Intola, Kivikoski, Lappe, Nipigon, Nolalu, Port Arthur, Quibell
and Tarmola), Manitoba and Saskatchewan, District No.6 (Lake Coteau, Manna,
Minda/Nummola, New Finland, Pointe du Bois, Sherridon and
Steeledale/Coteau Hill); Alberta, District No. 7 (Eckville, Edmonton and
Elspeth); and British Columbia, District No. 8 (Gibson's Heights,
Gibson's Landing, Ladysmith, Port Hammond, Port Moody, Sointula
Youth Organization Records (Series XII-XIII)
The Youth Organization Records in the collection consist
primarily of those of the National Office of the Youth Clubs of
the Finnish Organization [of Canada] (YCFO). These records,
which date from 1934 to 1940, document the attempt to create a
national organization for Finnish-Canadian youth modelled after
the parent body. In addition to this, there is a miscellaneous
collection of records of local youth clubs associated with the
FOC, dating 1934-1948.
The Records of the National Office of the Youth Clubs of the
Finnish Organization [of Canada]
Originals, n.d., 1934-1940, 41.5 cm.
The records of the National Office of the YCFO, n.d., 1934-1940,
consisting of: records of the Provisional Committee [for the
establishment of the YCFO]; National Office files, including
constitutional and related records, convention records,
financial records, and correspondence; National Committee files;
and National Secretary's (Paul Siren) files.
Records of Youth Clubs of the Finnish Organization Affiliates and
Other Youth Clubs Associated with the Finnish Organization of
Originals, n.d., 1934-1948, 4 cm.
The records of YCFO affiliates and of other youth clubs
associated with the FOC, n.d., 1934-1948, consisting of:
miscellaneous records of the Toronto Deltas of the YCFO, the
Finnadian Club of Toronto, and the Don-way Club of Toronto.
Sports Organization Records (Series XIV-XIX)
The Sports Organization Records in the collection consist of a
miscellany of records from Finnish-Canadian sports organizations
that were associated with the FOC, its predecessors and
affiliates. These records, dating from 1906 to 1973, include
fragmentary documentation on the Keski-Ontarion Voimistelu-ja
Urheiluseurojen Yhteistyöjärjestö, the Canadan Suomalaisten
Työläisten Urheiluliitto, the Workers' Sports Association of
Canada, the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation, the FCASF and on
local Finnish-Canadian sports clubs, most of which were
affiliated with the above-mentioned associations.
Records of the Keski-Ontarion Voimistelu-ja Urheiluseurojen
Yhteistyöjärjestö (The United Work Organization of the Central
Ontario Gymnastic and Athletic Clubs)
Originals, 1924, 0.2 cm.
The records of the Keski-Ontarion Voimistelu-ja Urheiluseurojen
Yhteistyöjärjestö, 1924, consisting of: miscellaneous records.
Records of the Canadan Suomalaisten Työläisten Urheiluliitto
(Finnish Canadian Workers' Sports Association)
Originals, n.d., 1925-1927, 0.3 cm.
The records of the Canadan Suomalaisten Työläisten
Urheiluliitto, n.d., 1925-1927, consisting of: miscellaneous records.
Records of the Workers' Sports Association of Canada
Originals, 1928-1935, 1 cm.
The records of the Workers' Sports Association of Canada,
1928-1935, consisting of: miscellaneous records of the Workers'
Sports and Gymnastic Association of Canada, and Workers' Sports
Association of Canada.
Records of the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation
Originals, n.d., 1937-1944, 1.5 cm.
The records of the Canadian Amateur Sports Federation, n.d.,
1937-1934, consisting of: miscellaneous records.
Records of the Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation
Originals, 1945-1973, 13.5 cm.
The records of the FCASF, 1945-1973, consisting of:
constitutional and related records; convention records;
correspondence; records of FCASF/FOC joint projects; publicity
material and publications.
Records of Local Finnish-Canadian Sports Clubs Associated with
the Finnish Canadian Amateur Sports Federation and its Predecessors
Originals, n.d., 1906-1967, 12 cm.
The records of local Finnish-Canadian sports clubs associated
with the FCASF and its predecessors, n.d., 1906-1967, consisting
of: miscellaneous records of the Alerts Athletic Club of
Sudbury; the Alerts/Visa Athletic Clubs; the Kisa Athletic Club
of Sudbury; the Star Athletic Club of Val d'Or; the Tarmola
[Ontario] Athletic and Gymnastic Club; the Vesa Athletic Club of
Sault Ste. Marie; the Yritys Athletic Club of Toronto.
Publishing Company Records (Series XX-XXI)
The Publishing Company Records document the intense involvement
of the FSOC and its successors in the development of a
Finnish-language press in Canada. Included are miscellaneous
records of the Finnish Publishing Company Limited dating from
1910 to 1915, whose newspaper Työkansa was the first official
organ of the FSOC. Also included are the records of Vapaus, a
newspaper that expanded into an ambitious publishing operation,
and its successor, Vapaus Publishing Company Limited. The Vapaus
enterprise, it should be noted, remained an integral part of the
organization and its operations until 1935, at which time the
FOC transferred the entire publishing operation to the newly
incorporated Vapaus Publishing Company Limited. As the majority
stockholder, the FOC naturally retained control of the company.
The Vapaus/Vapaus Publishing Company Limited records form an
almost complete unit of records documenting those publishing
operations from 1917 to 1974.
Records of the Finnish Publishing Company Limited (Port Arthur, Ontario)
Originals,1910-1915, consisting of: miscellaneous records.
The Records of Vapaus/Vapaus Publishing Company Limited (Sudbury, Ontario)
Originals, n.d., 1917-1983, 6.61 m.
The records of Vapaus/Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, n.d.,
1917-1983, consisting of: constitutional and related records;
records of shareholders' annual meetings; records of the Board
of Directors, including minutes of meetings and correspondence
files; committee records, management/staff relations records;
financial records; Business Office records; Advertising
Department records; Editorial Office records, including minutes,
correspondence, manuscripts and related items, and subject
information files; and Vapaus editor's (W. Eklund) files,
including reports, correspondence, manuscripts and related
items; personal service records, including personal papers and
Archives Records and Holdings (Series XXII-XXXIV)
The Archives Records and Holdings relate to the activities of
the Finnish Canadian Archives, an endeavour that was wholly
supported by the FOC. Material from that archival repository can
be divided into three principal categories: the records proper
and the informational holdings (that is, data initially
accumulated and compiled by Hannes Sula, the first archivist) of
the Finnish Canadian Archives, 1947-1975; the records of the
various organizations, dating from 1890 to 1975, that it had
acquired; and, finally, the newspapers and other publications,
dating from 1881 to 1975, that it collected. The records and
publications of the Finnish Canadian Archives are extremely
diverse in nature, for they have originated from a variety of
Canadian, American, Finnish, Russian and other sources.
The Records and Informational Holdings of the Finnish Canadian Archives
Originals, n.d., 1947-1975, 1.46 m.
The records and informational holdings of the Finnish Canadian
Archives, n.d., 1947-1975, consisting of: administrative records,
including constitutional and related records, minutes, financial
records, correspondence; acquisition records; informational holdings,
including general files with miscellaneous information, and subject files
with biographical, local, regional, organizational and thematic
Records of Other Canadian Organizations Associated with the
Finnish Organization of Canada and its Adherents
Originals, n.d., 1909-1972, 46 cm.
The records of other Canadian organizations associated with the
FOC and its adherents, n.d., 1909-1972, consisting of:
miscellaneous records of organizations associated with the
Socialist movement, including those of the Socialist Party of
Canada, the SDPC and the Canadian Labour Party; miscellaneous
records of organizations associated with the Communist movement,
including those of the Communist International Party, the WPC
and the CPC; miscellaneous records of organizations associated
with the "Communist Front," including those of the Canadian
Federation of Women's Labour Leagues, the Canadian Labor Defence
League, the Farmers' Unity League of Canada and the Workers'
Unity League of Canada; miscellaneous records of organizations
associated with the Great Depression, unemployment and the
radical left, including those of the Unemployed Councils of
Canada, the Dominion Congress on Unemployment and Social
Insurance, the Ontario Workers Federation on Unemployment and
the National Children's Council; miscellaneous records of
organizations promoting the Republican cause in the Spanish
Civil War, including those of the Canadian Committee to Aid
Spanish Democracy, the Canadian Youth Committee to Aid Spain,
the Finnish Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy and the Friends
of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion in Spain; miscellaneous
records of World War II leftist organizations, including those
of the Committee for the Release of Labour Prisoners;
miscellaneous records of organizations providing post-war aid to
Finland, including those of the Canada-Finland Aid Society Fund;
miscellaneous records of organizations associated with the left
during the Cold War and after, including those of the National
Initiative Committee to Convene a Communist Constituent
Convention, the Labor-Progressive Party and the Canadian Council
of National Groups.
Records of the Finnish-Canadian Labour Movement
Originals, n.d., 1911-1936, 12 cm.
The records of the Finnish-Canadian labour movement, n.d.,
1911-1936, consisting of: miscellaneous records of the Ontarion
Metsä-ja Rautatietyöläisten Rengas, the Western Federation of
Miners, the Lumber [and Agricultural] Workers' Industrial Union
of Canada, the Domestic Workers' Union of Canada, the Mine
Workers' Union of Canada, the International Union of Mine, Mill
and Smelter Workers and the Lumber and Sawmill Workers' Union.
Records of the Finnish-Canadian Co-operative Movement
Originals, n.d., 1909-1971, 8 cm.
The records of the Finnish-Canadian co-operative movement, n.d.,
1909-1971, consisting of: miscellaneous records of co-operatives
in British Columbia, including those of Sammon Takojat Limited;
miscellaneous records of co-operatives in Western Ontario,
including those of the Ravinto Co-operative Restaurant of Fort
William, the International Cooperative Stores Limited of Port
Arthur, the North-West Federation, the Rainy Valley Co-operative
Trading Company Limited, the Tarmo Osuusruokala and the Thunder
Bay Co-operative Dairy Limited; miscellaneous records of
co-operatives in Northern Ontario, including those of the
Workers' Co-operative of New Ontario Limited of Timmins;
miscellaneous records of co-operatives in the Sudbury District,
including those of the Liberty Hall Company Limited, the
Co-operative Trading Association of Sudbury Limited (Co-Optas),
the Sudbury Producers and Consumers Co-operative Dairy Limited,
the Farmers' and Workers' Co-operative Stores of Wanup Limited
and the Toilers' Merchandise Distribution Agency; miscellaneous
records of co-operatives in Toronto, including those of the
Toronto Workers' Co-operative Company Limited and the Toronto
Workers' Co-operative Bakery Limited.
Records of Other Finnish-Canadian Organizations
Originals, n.d., 1890-1964, 14.5 cm.
The records of other Finnish-Canadian organizations, n.d.,
1890-1964, consisting of: miscellaneous records of churches,
including those of the North Wellingtonin Suomalainen Kirkko ja
Seurakunta, the United Church of Canada, the Finnish Evangelical
Lutheran Conference in Canada et al., and the Copper Cliffin
Suomalainen Evankelis-Luterilainen Wuoristo-Seurakunta;
miscellaneous records of colonies, including those of the
Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company Limited and Sammon Takojat
Limited; miscellaneous records of temperance societies,
including those of the Lännen Rusko Raittiusseura, the Pohjan
Kukka Raittiusseura and the Finnish Temperance Society of Fort
William; miscellaneous records of social and cultural
organizations, including those of the North Wellington Silver
Comets Band, the Port Arthurin Työväen Yhdistys Imatra/SS
Osasto, the Copper Cliffin Nuorisoseura, the Crean Hillin
Nuorisoseura, the United Finnish Kaleva Brothers and Sisters and
the Entiset Punakaartilaiset (Former Red Guards); miscellaneous
records of the Suurjuhlat/Grand Festivals, including those of the
Canadan Suomalaisten Laulu-, Urheilu-ja Osuustoimintajuhlat and
the Kanadan Suomalaisten Suurjuhlat.
Records of Other Non-Finnish Canadian Organizations
Originals, n.d. [ca.1947-1950], 0.5 cm.
The records of other non-Finnish Canadian organizations, n.d.
[ca. 1947-1950], consisting of: miscellaneous records of the Russian
Workers' and Farmers' Club, the National Council for Canadian Soviet
Friendship and the Congress of Canadian Women.
Records of Finnish-American Organizations
Originals, n.d., 1902-1962, 10.5 cm.
The records of Finnish-American organizations, n.d., 1902-1962,
consisting of: miscellaneous records of Socialist organizations,
including those of the Duluth'in Työväenseura Ystävä, the
Convention of Finnish-American Socialist Locals of the Socialist
Party of America, the Finnish Socialist Federation, the Finnish
Workers' Federation of the United States, the Finnish Section of
the Workers' Party of America and the Finnish Section of the
Communist Party of America; miscellaneous records of Socialist
publishers, including those of the Suomalainen Sosialistinen
Kustannusyhtiö/Finnish Socialist Publishing Company, the Työmies
Kustannusyhtio, the Työmies Society, the Amerikan Suomalaisten
Sosiallstisten Kustannusliikkeiden Liitto, the Amerikan
Suomalaisten Sosialistinen Kustannusliitto and the Työväen
Lehtiliikkeiden Kustannuskomitea; miscellaneous records of
cultural and educational enterprises, including those of the
Continental Film Association and the Työväen-Opisto;
miscellaneous records of organizations associated with the
co-operative movement, including those of the Co-operative
Records of Organizations in Finland
Originals, n.d., 1945-1975, 4 cm.
The records of organizations in Finland, n.d., 1945-1975,
consisting of: miscellaneous records of the Sosiaalipoliittinen
neuvottelukunta, the Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto, the
Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue, the Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen
Puolue and the Suomi-Seura r.y.
Records of International Organizations
Originals, n.d., 1957-1969, 7 cm.
The records of international organizations, n.d., 1957-1969,
consisting of: miscellaneous records of the Women's International Democratic
Federations, the World Congress of Mothers, the World Congress
of Women and the Sixth World Festival of Youth and Students.
Finnish-Language Newspapers and Serial Publications
Originals, n.d., 1901-1983, 13.65 m.
Finnish-language newspapers and serial publications, n.d.,
1901-1983, consisting of: material published in Canada,
including newspapers, serials and near-print serials; material
published in Finland, including newspapers, serials and
near-print serials; material published in Sweden, including
serials; material published in the Soviet Union, including
serials; material published in the United States, including
newspapers and serials.
Other Newspapers and Serial Publications (Chiefly in the English Language)
Originals, 1934-1978,60.5 cm.
Other newspapers and serial publications, 1934-1978, consisting
of: material published in Canada, including newspapers, serials and
near-print serials; material published in Finland, including
serials; material published in the Soviet Union, including
serials; material published in the United States, including
newspapers and serials; and other foreign publications,
including newspapers and serials.
Originals, n.d., 1881-1973, 4.69 m.
Finnish-language monographs, n.d., 1881-1973, consisting of:
material published in Canada, Finland, the Soviet Union and the United
Other Monographs (Chiefly in the English Language)
Originals, n.d., 1909-1974, 1.01 m.
Other monographs, n.d., 1909-1974, consisting of: material
published in Canada, Finland, the Soviet Union and the United
States, and other foreign publications.
Microfilmed Selections from the Finnish Organization of Canada
Collection at the National Archives
Microfilm, n.d., 1908-1930, 1 reel, H-1656.
Microfilmed selections from the FOC collection, n.d., 1908-1930,
consisting of: miscellaneous records of the FSOC et al.;
miscellaneous records of the FOC; miscellaneous records of the
Toronto (Finnish Society of Toronto), Pottsville, South Porcupine,
Timmins and Sudbury Locals of the FSOC/FOC; miscellaneous records
of the Finnish Publishing Company Limited of Port Arthur, Ontario.
FINNISH WAR VETERANS IN CANADA MG 28, V 60
(Montreal Branch) (est. 1935)
The Suomen Vapaussodan Rintamamiehet Montrealissa (Finnish
Independence War Veterans in Montreal) was founded in Montreal
in 1935 as a local association for Finnish ex-servicemen who had
served in the White Guards during Finland's Civil War of 1918.
Its name was eventually shortened to Suomen Rintamiehet
Montrealissa (Finnish War Veterans in Montreal) to allow for the
inclusion within its ranks of those who had served in the
Finnish armed forces during the Winter War of 1939-1940 and the
Continuation War of 1941-1944. Once the Finnish war veterans
across the country organized themselves nationally as the
Finnish War Veterans in Canada/Suomen Aseveljet Canadassa, the
Suomen Rintamamiehet Montrealissa joined it. Its present name,
the Finnish War Veterans in Canada (Montreal Branch), was
adopted in 1955. While its social, benevolent and philanthropic
activities have been of consequence to its membership, this
association's historical significance has been largely
determined by the role that it played as a centre of political
conservatism and Finnish nationalism in the struggle of the
"Whites" against the "Red" Finns in Canada.
Originals, n.d, 1935-1976, 9 cm; Finding Aid No.664.
The records of the Executive Committee of the Finnish War
Veterans in Canada (Montreal Branch), n.d., 1935-1976,
consisting of: constitution and instrument of court
registration, 1959, 1965, 4 pages; agenda, annual reports of the
Executive Committee, minute books of annual conventions, general
and various committee meetings, and other records related to
annual conventions, 1935-1976, 7.5 cm; correspondence files of
the Executive Committee, 1955-1976, 1 cm; historical sketches
occasioned by various anniversary celebrations of the Finnish
War Veterans in Canada, n.d., 1965, 1975, 0.5 cm. This material
is primarily in the Finnish language.
FRONTIER COLLEGE (est. 1899) MG 28, I 124
Frontier College was founded in 1899 by Alfred Fitzpatrick. It
was first known as the Reading Camp Association but, in 1913, it
became Frontier College and, in 1919, was incorporated under
that name. In 1922, Frontier College obtained a charter from the
federal government giving it the power to grant degrees. In
1931, the college relinquished its degree-granting powers, and
has since concentrated upon the task of bringing educational
opportunities to workmen located in the isolated mining,
lumbering and railway camps across Canada.
A large percentage of the students enrolled with the college
tended to be immigrants, if only because they were prepared to
accept the generally low wages, poor working conditions and
other hardships associated with employment in rough work-camps
deep in the wilderness. Among the student-labourers were also a
fair number of immigrant Finns, for they traditionally
gravitated to mining, lumbering and railway section work. The
teachers of the college, on the other hand, were recruited from
a far more advantaged group-idealistic university students who
were studying at various Canadian and American colleges and
universities. Each year some of them would be selected to go to
the work camps- usually during the summer months-to serve as
labourer-teachers. There they would work with their fellow
campmen as labourers during the day and, in the evenings,
organize classes, lend books or advise student correspondents.
Originals, 1874-1975, 59.92 m; Finding Aid No. 736.
The records of Frontier College, 1874-1975, consisting of:
correspondence, 1899-1969, 36.41 m; annual reports (the earlier
ones [1900-1923] being frequently thematic, and dealing with
such subjects as the education of the Frontier labourer, the
immigrant, settlement camps and Communism in the camps) and
records of annual meetings, 1900-1970, 1.74 m; instructors'
files, 1905-1970, 11.24 m; financial records, 1901-1971, 3.95 m;
publicity material, 1880-1975, 1.75 m; university phase
records, 1922-1931, 75 cm; and principals' files, 1888-1963, 3.83 m.
HELLMAN, George MG 30, D 280
Virtually nothing is known of George Hellman other than that he
was a Finnish Canadian. However, the records in this collection
suggest that he, or the person from whom he received them, had
initially belonged to the Finnish-Canadian socialist movement in
Port Arthur and then, when it split into two movements-the
Communist and the IWW-at the end of World War I, he joined the latter.
Originals, 1911-1942, 4 cm.
The George Hellman collection, 1911-1942, consisting of: a
minute book of the Port Arthurin Suomalainen Sosialisti Osasto
(Port Arthur Finnish Socialist Local [of the Finnish Socialist
Organization of Canada]), January 15, 1911-December 15, 1912; a
journal of the [Port Arthurin] Suomalainen Sosialisti Osaston
Restaurant or the "Restaurant of the [Port Arthur] Finnish
Socialist Local"), June 15, 1911-December 21, 1911; a minute
book of the Agitatsionikomitea (Agitation Committee) of the
Canadan Teollisuusunionistisen Kannatusliiton Port Arthurin
Yhdistys (Port Arthur Association of the Support League of
Canadian Industrial Unionists), February 3, 1937-December 14,
1942. This material is in the Finnish language.
HUNNAKKO, Leo (fl. 1977) MG 31, H 107
Leo Hunnakko, a Finnish-Canadian radio journalist and freelance
writer, had been active in the preparation of broadcast materials
for Synapse, an independent Toronto firm that was in the business
of developing programs and scripts for radio and television.
Originals, n.d., 3 pages; photocopies, n.d., 1973, 29 pages.
The papers of Leo Hunnakko, n.d., 1973, consisting of:
Hunnakko's manuscript research notes and photocopies of a
synopsis of his interview with Yrjö Korpi (née Lahdekorpi)
concerning Korpi's recollections of Finnish left-wing activities
in Northwestern Ontario, etc.; a historical memoir, "Historic
Events of the Athletic Club Isku," written by Paavo Voutilainen;
newspaper clippings (in Finnish) concerning the Finnish-language
teacher Maija Kainulainen at Lakehead University; a treatment
presentation, "The Finnish Canadian community in North-Western
Ontario" written by Leo Hunnakko for a program in the CBC Radio
series Identities. This material is in the Finnish and English languages.
JOUPPI, Einar Michael (1893-1978) MG 31, H 105
Einar(i) Michael Jouppi was born in Finland in 1893. He
emigrated to Canada in 1911, where he rose to national
prominence within the Finnish-Canadian community, largely
through his many endeavours on behalf of the Finns in Northern
and Central Ontario. A talented and indefatigable worker, Jouppi
served the growing Finnish community there in many capacities:
as an organizer for various clubs and co-operatives; as a writer
of numerous newspaper articles dealing with cultural, social and
political issues for the Finnish-language press in Canada and
the United States; as a poet and playwright; as an actor and
director in the Finnish-Canadian theatre; and, finally, as a
local historian and chronicler of the Finnish community's
activities in Ontario. After a lifetime of tireless service in
aid of the community, Jouppi died in 1978.
Originals, n.d., 1905-1977, 60 cm; Finding Aid No. 1369.
The papers of E. M. Jouppi, n.d., 1905-1977, consisting of:
Jouppi's personal papers, including manuscripts, draft notes,
scripts and notebooks relating to his newspaper articles, plays
and other writings together with his compilations of notable
quotations, miscellaneous manuscripts, etc., of the writings of
other authors, and, as well, his financial records, his lists of
newspaper articles that he sent for publication, plays in which
he acted or directed, addresses of his correspondents, and his
correspondence files, n.d., 1922-1977, 24 cm; miscellaneous
papers and records generated and/or accumulated by Jouppi in the
course of his activities and connections with such social,
cultural and co-operative organizations as the Canadan
Teollisuusunionistinen Kannatusliitto (CTK Liitto), the Central
Co-operative Wholesale, Consumers Co-operative Society, Limited,
the Copper Cliff Finnish Social Society (Local No. 31), the
Farmers' and Workers' Co-operative Stores of Wanup Limited, the
Nipigon Branch of the Co-op Youth Club, the Northern
Co-operative Federation, the Northern States Cooperative Guilds
and Clubs, the Ontario Co-operative Union, the Credit Unions
Mutual Benefit Association, the Sudbury District Co-operative
League, the Sudbury Producers and Consumers Co-operative Dairy
Limited and the United Co-operative Society of Fitchburg, n.d.,
1925-1967, 16 cm; miscellaneous scripts and rolebooks, of
various plays, printed catalogues of several Finnish-language
play rental agencies with listings of their theatrical
properties, and Jouppi's notes concerning the Finnish-Canadian
theatre, n.d., 1915-1938, 4 cm; published (or printed) material
accumulated by Jouppi concerning his various interests and
consisting of circulars, posters, newspaper clippings,
periodicals, pamphlets, pocket calendar/diaries, books and book
catalogues, n.d., 1909-1967, 16 cm. This material is primarily
in the Finnish language.
KANGAS, Victor (1902-1973) MG 30, C 138
Born at Evijärvi, Finland, in 1902, Victor Kangas (then Vihtori
Kivikangas) emigrated to Canada in 1924 after the completion of
his compulsory service in the Finnish army. During his first
years here, Kangas, like many other Finns, was attracted to the
construction work on the hydroelectric project at Kenogami,
Quebec. When his employment with that project ended, he settled
in Montreal, where he worked as a carpenter until his
retirement. There Kangas later married Mrs. Martta Aaltonen (née
Haavisto), who had two children, Aare and Aili, from a previous
marriage. He was survived by his wife after his death in 1973.
Within the Finnish community in Quebec, Kangas was well known as
a violinist and working-class activist. In the latter regard, he
had been a particularly energetic organizer for the FOC's
Kenogami and Montreal Locals, having served on their executive
boards in various capacities.
Until his death, he was also custodian of those records of the
defunct Montreal Local that had not been transferred to the
FOC's National Office in Toronto or to its subsidiary, the
Finnish Canadian Archives, in Sudbury.
Originals, 1923-1969, 2.5 cm.
The papers of Victor Kangas, 1923-1969, consisting of:
correspondence received by Kangas and his family from Finns in
Canada, the United States, Finland and Soviet Karelia, n.d.,
1923-1950; Kangas's certificate of completion of his compulsory
military service in Finland, 1924, and his holograph will, 1969;
Montreal Tramway school passes issued to Aare and Aili Aaltonen,
1949, 1950; papers relating to the bankruptcy of a
Finnish-Canadian building contractor in Montreal, 1949; records
of the Montreal Local of the FOC, 1949-1950, including a
financial statement of the FOC (1949), a typed draft and final
typescript of the History of the Finns from Kenogami and its
surrounding region," and a draft manuscript and final typescript
of the "History of the Finns in Montreal before 1950," by the
History Committee of the Montreal Local. This material is
primarily in the Finnish language.
KATAINEN, P. (fl. 1910-1932) MG 55, 30 #221
Pekka Katainen belonged to that first great wave of Finnish
immigrants who came to Canada between the turn of the century
and World War I. Katainen quickly emerged as one of the leading
figures among the Finnish-Canadian socialists through his
organizational activities as well as through his occasional
contributions to the newspaper Työkansa. The most significant of
Katainen's publications was his translation into Finnish-Miten
kapitalismi on hypnotiseeran nut yhteiskunnan (Työkansa,
1914)-of William Thurston Brown's How Capitalism Has Hypnotized
Society. During the crisis years of 1920-1921, Katainen served
as secretary of the "reconstituted" FSOC. He continued to
maintain his connections with that organization and its
successors until his emigration to Soviet Karelia in 1932.
Originals, 1918, 2 pp.
The papers of P. Katainen, 1918, consisting of: a letter from
J.W. Ahlqvist, secretary of the National Executive Committee of
the FSOC, to P. Katainen, September 7, 1918. This item is in the
KENT, Abbo (1912- ) MG 30, D 353
Abbo Kent was born into a family of Finnish Jews in 1912. Kent
spent his childhood and most of his adult life in Helsinki, the
centre of Finland's tiny Jewish community of about 2,000. Kent
worked in Finland as a businessman. Upon his retirement, he
emigrated to Canada. He now lives in Ottawa, Ontario, where his
married daughter also resides.
Photocopies, n.d., 1979-1986,2 cm.
The papers of Abbo Kent, n.d., 1979-1986, consisting of: photocopies
of Kent's correspondence and, as well, of articles and extracts
from publications relating to the history of Jews in Finland.
LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY, Library MG 36, I B 15
In the early 1970s, Lakehead University became concerned with
documenting the historic presence of the Finnish community in
Thunder Bay, Ontario. In its pursuit of that aim, the university
acquired an important collection of miscellaneous records from
the local Finlandia Club. Vivian Nyysönen, a Finnish-Canadian
librarian at the university, bore the responsibility for
processing that material.
Photocopies, 1972-1976, 60 pages.
The records of Lakehead University Library, 1972-1976,
consisting of: an inventory of the Finlandia Club collection
(2.71 m) of Lakehead University, which constitutes an important
source of original material (1902-1965) relating to one of
Canada's largest local Finnish communities, that of Thunder Bay
and its environs. The collection that is described in this
inventory documents a broad range of social, political, cultural
and economic activities undertaken by the local Finnish
community over the period of some sixty years.
LI-RA-MA (Russian Consular Records) MG 30, E 406
From about the turn of the twentieth century, the Imperial
Russian Government maintained consular services at Canada's
principal ports of entry-that is, Halifax, Montreal and
Vancouver-to represent the interests and concerns of the Russian
Empire and its dominions (which then also included the Grand
Duchy of Finland) in Canada. Sergei Likhachev, Konstantin
Ragosin and Harry Mathers constituted the mainstays of the
Imperial Russian consular corps in this country from 1900 until
the fall of the Provision Government in Russia with the
Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Even after the Bolshevik
ascendancy to power, they continued to offer their consular
services as an extension of a non-Bolshevik Russian
"Government-in-Exile" and, as well, at the request of the
Microfilm, 1898-1922, approximately 135,000 pp.; Finding Aid
The microfilmed LI-RA-MA collection, 1898-1922, consisting of:
correspondence, official documents, reports, questionnaires,
photographs and other material, accumulated by Sergei Likhachev,
Konstantin Ragosin and Harry Mathers during their careers as
Russian consuls in Canada. The collection has been arranged into
two major groups: the "policy" files and the "nominal" files.
The "policy" files, it should be noted, contain extensive
documentation on a wide range of administrative, financial,
legal, political and other miscellaneous matters as well as
issues purely of policy. In them, for example, are files
concerning the assistance rendered by the consuls to shipwrecked
Finnish sailors and their investigations on the whereabouts and
activities of émigré Finnish revolutionaries in Canada. The
"nominal" files, on the other hand, are primarily concerned with
the requests to the consuls for the issuance of passports, visas
and other official documents from more than 10,000 "Russian"
immigrants, including those from almost a thousand Finns who had
come to Canada (frequently via the United States) from the then
Imperial Russian Grand Duchy of Finland. Inasmuch as these
"nominal" files on the Finns represent some five per cent of the
Finnish population then resident in Canada, they are of great
interest to genealogists as well as to quantitative historians
and other researchers for the vital statistics that they
document. While the material in this collection is primarily in
the Russian language, most of the documentation relating to the
Finns is in Finnish, with successively lesser portions being in
Swedish and English.
MACKENZIE-PAPINEAU BATTALION COLLECTION MG 30, E 173
The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, a Canadian volunteer unit
formed in Spain as a part of the XVth International Brigade,
fought in the Spanish Civil War on behalf of the Republican
Government during the campaigns of 1937-1938. Commissioned on
July 1, 1937, the battalion drew together more than six hundred
Canadians from many walks of life and ethnic backgrounds into
the struggle against the insurgent General Franco and his German
and Italian allies. Some ten per cent of the Mac-Paps, the name
by which the Canadian contingent was popularly known, were
native and foreign-born Finnish Canadians. Their ranks were
further reinforced by additional handfuls of Finnish nationals
and Finnish-Americans. The Finns formed the battalion's famed
machine-gun company, distinguishing themselves with great valour
and gallantry in many major actions before the battalion was
withdrawn from the lines on September 23, 1938. The casualties
suffered by the Mac-Paps were extremely heavy with estimates
running as high as fifty per cent of the battalion's listed
strength being killed or wounded. Of those killed, some twenty
per cent were Finnish Canadians.
Originals, n.d., 1937-1968, 10.25 cm; photocopies, 1937-1939,
6 cm; Finding Aid No. 608.
The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion collection, n.d., 1937-1968,
includes: the Victor Hoar papers, 1937-1968; the Edward Cecil Smith
papers, n.d., 1937-1938; and the Friends of the
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion papers, n.d., 1938-1939. These
papers were originally collected by Victor Hoar of East Lansing,
Michigan, for the writing of his book, The Mackenzie-Papineau
Battalion. They are described as follows:
Victor Hoar Papers
Originals, 1937-1968,4.75 cm; photocopies, 1937-1938, 4 cm.
The papers of Victor Hoar, 1937-1968, consisting of:
correspondence, 1966-1968, with men who served in Spain;
accounts of experiences in Spain written by four members of the
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, death and disappearance certificates
issued by the Republican Government for eighteen men, copies of
articles and books written on the Spanish Civil War, and clippings
concerning the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, 1937-1938.
Edward Cecil Smith Papers
Originals, n.d., 1937-1938, 5 cm.
The papers of Edward Cecil Smith, n.d., 1937-1938, consisting
of: a draft history by Edward Cecil Smith, a Toronto journalist
who served as the commander of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion
from September 1937 to March 1938 and during July 1938; rosters
of the battalion; three small maps; and personal accounts of
service in experience in Spain written by members of the battalion.
Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Papers
Originals, n.d., 1938-1939, 0.5 cm; photocopies, n.d., 1938-1939, 2 cm.
The papers of the Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion,
n.d., 1938-1939, consisting of: correspondence and reports
dealing with the veterans; and photocopies of file cards with
pictures of approximately six hundred Canadian volunteers
prepared by the Friends of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion,
which served as a group devoted to the care and welfare of the
men abroad as well as an intermediary and liaison between the
volunteers and their families.
MANSFIELD, Lempi Dagmar (b. 1904) MG 31, H 95
Lempi Dagmar (née Klinga) Mansfield was born in Elimäki,
Finland. Her father, Nestor Klinga, brought her, together with
the other members of his family, to Canada in the fall of 1913.
In 1916, the Klinga family moved from Cobalt to South Porcupine,
Ontario, where they made their permanent home. While her father
concerned himself mainly with the activities of the Finnish-Canadian
community in the area (first with the FSOC and later with the
Consumers Co-operative Society, Limited [Timmins]), Mansfield
herself became more active with the broader society there (for
example, through the Daughters of the Eastern Star and the South
Porcupine Consumers Co-Op Credit Union). Most recently, she published her
autobiography, Aim for the Broom. In sum, the life and career of
Lempi D. Mansfield presents an outstanding example of the
successful adaptation and acculturation of a first-generation
Finnish Canadian to the ways of the wider Anglo- Canadian society.
Originals, 1909-1981, 20 cm; Finding Aid No. 1358.
The papers of Lempi D. Mansfield, 1909-1981, consisting of: her
correspondence, diaries and scrapbooks; a draft manuscript of
her autobiography, Aim for the Broom; miscellaneous newspaper
clippings, periodicals and sheet music.
MARKKANEN, Kyllikki (Kay) (fl. 1950-1979) MG 31, H 108
Kyllikki Markkanen emigrated from Finland to Canada after World
War II. However, she maintained strong ties with the Old Country
reporting on the Finnish presence in North America-and
especially in Canada- during the 1960s as a journalist for
various publications based in Finland. Her writings were not
only important for their descriptions of the life and activities
of the Finnish community here, but they also reflect the type of
information that was conveyed to readers in Finland about the
community and the general conditions prevailing in Canada at a
time when many Finns were still thinking of emigrating abroad.
More recently, Markkanen had been an active member of the
Scandinavian-Canadian Club of Toronto, serving as secretary on
its executive board.
Photocopies, n.d, 1961, 3 cm.
The papers of Kyllikki Markkanen, n.d., 1961, consisting of:
photocopies of her articles published in Finland, including
"Artturi Lehtinen: Maailmanmies ja kulttuuripersoona Suomen
lähetiläänä Kanadassa," n.d.; "Kanadan suomalaisia auringon
puolella," n.d.; "Malkosaari sortunut unelma Tyynen Valtameren
rantamilla," n.d.; "Oma vanhainkoti: Vancouverin suomalaisten
suursaavutus," n.d.; "Oskari Tokoin vieraana Fitchburgissa,"
n.d.; "Osuustoiminta elää Kanadan suomalaisten keskuudessa
suurten riitaisuuksien heikentämänä," n.d.; "Presidentti
Kekkonen suuressa lännessä," Yhteis Voimin, No. II, 1961;
"Suomalaisfarmi nikkelikaivoksen kainalossa," n.d.; "Osuuskassa
turvaa Kanadan suomalaisten huomispäivän," n.d.; "Suomalaisia
Floridan auringon alla," n.d.; "Suomalaisia siirtolaislapsia
koulutiella Kanadassa," n.d.
MONTREAL, Quebec: St. Michael's Finnish MG 8, C 62
Evangelical Lutheran Church
With the support of the Consulate General of Finland in Montreal
and the Finnish Seamen's Mission Society in Helsinki, Montrealin
Pyhän Mikaelin Suomalainen Luterilainen Seurakunta (St.
Michael's Finnish Lutheran Congregation of Montreal) was founded
in 1927. In 1941, it was incorporated under the laws of Quebec
as St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of Montreal
(Montrealin Pyhän Mikaelin Suomalainen Evankelis-Luterilainen
Kirkko [ja Seurakunta]). Throughout its history, the church has
played an extremely important part in the life of the more
conservative elements in Montreal's Finnish community.
Indicative of this was the church's involvement with the
Montreal organizers of the Finnish Aid Committee, which was
established to help Finland during the Winter War of 1939-1940
against the Soviet Union, and the Canada-Finland Aid Society
Fund, which was established to assist Finland with her post-war
recovery. However, with the moderation of factional tensions in
more recent times, the church now serves the needs of the
broader Finnish community in Montreal.
Originals, n.d, 1901-1975,5.26 m; Finding Aid No. 1140.
The records of St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church
of Montreal, n.d., 1901-1975, consisting of: constitutional and
related records, minutes and reports, inter-church records,
correspondence, financial records, membership records, church
registration records, records of church activities and services,
archival holdings, estate papers, pastor's personal papers,
n.d., 1901-1975, 5.06 m; records of the Finnish Aid Committee
(Montreal), including minutes, correspondence and financial
records, n.d., 1939-1946, 19 cm; records of the Canada-Finland
Aid Society Fund (Montreal), including constitution, minutes and
correspondence, 1946-1947, 1 cm. This material is primarily in
the Finnish language.
MONTREAL FINNISH NATIONAL SOCIETY (1930-1931) MG 28, V 102
The Montrealin Suomalainen Kansallisseura (Montreal Finnish
National Society) was founded in 1930 by a dissident group of
Finnish nationalists who had broken away from the Montreal Suomi
Society (Montrealin Suomi-Seura). Like the Montreal Suomi
Society, it was specifically formed as a right-wing,
anti-communist organization dedicated to the eradication of the
influence of the "Red" Finns in Montreal. However, it soon
became apparent that not enough "White" Finns lived there to
support two such rival organizations. Consequently, the Montreal
Finnish National Society was dissolved in 1931, and most of its
members rejoined the Montreal Suomi Society. Its records were
deposited in the archives of St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical
Lutheran Church of Montreal, and then were transferred in 1967
to the archives of the Finnish War Veterans in Montreal.
Originals, 1930-1931, 1.5 cm.
The records of the Montreal Finnish National Society, 1930-1931,
consisting of: a draft manuscript of a speech prepared for the
constituent meeting, 1930; a draft manuscript of a speech and
the constitution for the proposed society, 1930; a draft
constitution (Finnish version), 1930; a manuscript of the
constitution (English version), 1930; general correspondence,
1930-1931. This material is primarily in the Finnish language.
MONTREAL SUOMI SOCIETY, Inc. (est. 1927) MG 28, V 68
The great wave of post-World War I emigration from Finland to
Canada brought thousands of immigrants to Montreal. Because they
had come still fresh with bitter memories of Finland's tragic
Civil War of 1918, these newcomers tended to perpetuate here the
same rifts between "White" and "Red" Finns that had so deeply
divided their old homeland. Consequently, the right-wing element
in Montreal's Finnish community chose to establish its own
institutions such as the Montrealin Suomalainen Seura (Finnish
Society of Montreal), which was founded on December 8, 1927,
with the specific purpose of providing the local "White" Finns
with a wide range of social and cultural activities as well as
otherwise ministering to their needs. In 1932, the society
changed its name to Montrealin Suomi-Seura. When it was
incorporated on October 19, 1933, it adopted the English
translation of that name-Montreal Suomi Society, Inc.-as its
legal title. From the early 1930s to the early 1960s, the
society also served as a branch of the Central Organization of
the Loyal Finns in Canada and, as well, the society's facilities
were used as the latter's national headquarters from 1935 to 1957.
The origins of the Central Organization of the Loyal Finns in
Canada can be traced to February 22, 1931, at which time
representatives from the various Finnish National Societies
across Canada decided to establish the Kanadan
Kansallismielisten Suomalaisten Keskusjärjestö to act as a
co-ordinating headquarters and umbrella organization for its
member societies. Fearing identification with the "Red" Finns
because the FOC also used the same word for "organization" in
its name (that is, Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö), this
nationalistic, conservative-minded "White" association quickly
amended its Finnish name to Kanadan Kansallismielisten
Suomalaisten Keskusliitto by means of substituting a synonym
-liitto-for the "offensive" word. As a consequence, the
Keskusliitto was able to retain unchanged the original English
translation of its name. In 1938, it was the English version
that the Keskusliitto used when it became incorporated as the
Central Organization of the Loyal Finns in Canada, Inc. In 1955,
the Finnish name was changed to Lojaalien Suomalaisten Keskusliitto
and, about the same time, the English version was also shortened
to Loyal Finns in Canada. Despite moving its national headquarters
from Montreal to Sudbury in 1957, the Loyal Finns in Canada
could not arrest the decline in its fortunes and, by 1962,
most of its branches-including the one in Montreal-had either
withdrawn their affiliation or ceased operation altogether.
Originals, n.d., 1927-1977, 1.75 m; Finding Aid No. 1139.
Records of the Montreal Suomi Society, Inc., n.d., 1927-1977,
consisting of: constitutional records, minutes and reports,
correspondence, financial records, membership records and
records of various activities of the society and its membership,
n.d., 1927-1977, 1.55 m; records of the Central Organization of
the Loyal Finns in Canada, Inc., including constitutional
records, minutes and reports, financial records, membership
records, and records of various activities of the Montreal
branch of the organization, n.d., 1932-1963,20 cm. This material
is primarily in the Finnish language.
PULKKINEN, Hans (1910- ) MG 31, H 74
Hans Pulkkinen was born in Finland in 1910. The part of eastern
Finland in which Pulkkinen's family lived became the scene of
fierce warfare between the "Red" and "White" forces during the
Finnish Civil War of 1919. To escape the fury of the battle that
erupted there, he and his family sought refuge by fleeing deep
into Soviet Karelia. When the war ended, the Soviet authorities
did not permit them to return to Finland. Pulkkinen was
subsequently raised, educated and employed in the Soviet Union
as an Arctic researcher. During World War II, Pulkkinen was
captured by German troops besieging Leningrad. When the Germans
discovered that he was listed as a "Finnish national" in his
identity papers, they released him on the grounds that they
considered him to be one of their Finnish "comrades-in-arms."
They then assigned him to work for the German Reich, which he
did until the end of the war. When Canada began to seek
immigrants to bolster her agricultural sector in the early
post-war era, Pulkkinen emigrated to this country as a farm
worker. After fulfilling his commitment to the government to
work on various farms in southern Ontario, he moved to Ottawa,
where he finally secured employment with the federal Department
of Mines, Resources and Energy in his own specialty. His
experience was in such demand that he continued to work on the
Polar Continental Shelf Project for some time after his
retirement in 1975.
Originals, 1928-1975, 5 cm.
The papers of Hans Pulkkinen, 1928-1975, consisting of:
Pulkkinen's passports and other official documents relating to
his life and activities in the employ of the Soviet, German and
Canadian governments. This material is in the English, Finnish,
German and Russian languages.
RITARI, A.R.M. (1906- ) MG 31, H 36
A.R.M. Ritari, a third-generation Finnish Canadian, was born in
1906 to a family that had emigrated from Finland in the
mid-1890s to settle in Copper Cliff, Ontario. Because he
originally intended to follow in the footsteps of his father,
who had risen to the rank of shift boss in the nickel mines
there, Ritari the younger attended the Sudbury Mining School.
After his graduation in 1926, he became a draftsman for the
Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. From 1929 to 1934, he
worked as an insurance agent for the Sun Life Assurance Company
of Canada. In 1934, Ritari established his own independent
insurance agency which he operated until 1969 when he sold it.
At the behest of the Swedish-American Lines, Ritari also founded
the Ritari Travel Service in 1936, which he finally sold in the mid-1970s.
Throughout his life, Ritari has been active in local business
associations and service clubs. For example, he founded the
Sudbury Insurance Agents Association in 1939 and served as its
first president. He was twice elected director of the Ontario
Insurance Agents Association, and in 1950 he also served as
president of the Sudbury Chamber of Commerce. Ritari, however,
is proudest of his long association with the Lions Club
International, having actively participated in its local and
international activities since becoming a member of the Lions
Club of Sudbury in 1933. In 1950, he founded the first Lions
Club in Finland. Largely as the result of Ritari's continuing
efforts to promote its ideals of community service there,
Finland now has 518 Lions Clubs with over 15,000 members.
Originals, 1933-1976, 8.2 m.
The papers of A.R.M. Ritari, 1933-1976, consisting of: Ritari's
records relating to his business activities, and personal papers
concerning his involvement in the Finnish-Canadian community and
the Lions Club International. This material is in both the
English and Finnish languages.
SCANDINAVIAN CANADIAN CLUB OF TORONTO MG 28, V 77
The Scandinavian Canadian Dub of Toronto was established during
the 1930s with the purpose of drawing together for common social
and cultural activities those Danes, Finns, Norwegians and
Swedes who resided in the Toronto area. Sven Stadius, a former
consul of Finland, was a leading figure in the club until his
death in 1976. The club, which is still in operation today, has
become primarily the preserve of those individuals of Scandinavian
and Finnish origin who have extensive commercial and business
interests in Toronto and abroad.
Originals, 1937-1961, 29 cm.
The records of the Scandinavian Canadian Club of Club of
Toronto, 1937-1961, consisting of: a minute book, various
minutes of meetings, correspondence, financial records and other
SCANDINAVIAN CENTRE CO-OPERATIVE MG 28, V 93
ASSOCIATION LIMITED, Edmonton, Alberta
As was the case with similar endeavours in other parts of the
country, the Scandinavian Centre Co-operative Association
Limited of Edmonton, Alberta, sought to unite the small numbers
of individuals belonging to the local Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
and Finnish communities into a larger social and cultural
organization. A Scandinavian Centre continues to operate there today.
Originals, 1955-1973, 5 cm.
The records of the Scandinavian Centre Co-operative Association
Limited, 1955-1973, consisting of: miscellaneous records of the
association and the Raamattu Kämppä Hirsi Sauna O.Y. (Bible Camp
Log Sauna Ltd.).
SOINTULAN NUORISO LIITTO, Sointula, B.C. MG 28, V 127
The founding meeting of the Sointulan Nuoriso Liitto (Sointula
Young Workers' League) of Sointula, British Columbia, was held
on October 8, 1922. Established under the auspices of the
Sointula Local of the FSS/WPC, the league's purpose was to
organize the youth (teens to early twenties) in the Finnish
community and to provide them with the opportunity to
participate in various social, cultural and political
activities. In 1924, Sointula Local transferred its affiliation
to the FS/WPC, a change also reflected in the operation of the league.
Originals, 1922-1925, 1 cm.
The records of the Sointulan Nuoriso Liitto (Sointula Young
Workers' League), 1922-1925, consisting of: a minutebook,
October 8, 1922, to October 25, 1925. This material is in the
SOINTULAN S. S. OSASTO N:O 7, MG 28, V 126
Sointula, British Columbia
The founding meeting of the Sointulan S. S. Osasto N:o 7
(Sointula Finnish Socialist Local No. 7 of Sointula, British
Columbia) was held on Christmas Day, 1907. The Sointula Local
immediately joined the Socialist Party of Canada, retaining its
affiliation with that party until about a year after the
establishment of the FSOC in 1911. At that time, it joined the
FSOC, which subsequently evolved into the FOC. Sometime prior to
1950, the Sointula Local ceased to be active and came to be
regarded as a defunct branch of the FOC.
The Keskusteluseura, or "Discussion Group," of the Sointula FSOC
Local was established as an integral part of the Local's
educational, cultural and social programs. Members of the
Keskusteluseura were invited to prepare speeches on various
topics. Speakers were then graded on both the content and
delivery of their talks. The Keskusteluseura flourished between
1915 and 1918.
Originals, 1915-1918. 1 cm.
The records of Sointulan S. S. Osasto N:o 7, 1915-1918,
consisting of: a minutebook of the Sointula FSOC Local's
Keskusteluseura, May 30, 1915-June 9, 1918. This material is in
the Finnish language.
SORA,Eeva(1919- ) MG 31, II 78
Eeva Sora, a first-generation Finnish Canadian, has been a
long-time resident of Thunder Bay and environs. She has also
been extremely active in the musical life of the
Finnish-Canadian community there. She has particularly
distinguished herself as a talented singer, performing
frequently as a soloist and in choir work for a variety of local
Finnish and non-Finnish organizations in that region.
Originals, 1953-1975, 21 cm.
The papers of Eeva Sora, 1953-1975, consisting of: Sora's
correspondence, together with various circulars, pamphlets,
programs and other material relating to her activities in
connection with the Central Committee of Finnish Societies as
well as other Finnish and multicultural organizations in the
Thunder Bay area.
STADIUS, Sven (1899-1977) MG 30, D 239
Sven Stadius was born on July 22, 1899, in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
There he spent his early years and completed his formal
education. With the outbreak of the Finnish Civil War in 1918,
he first enlisted with the "White" forces under General Mannerheim.
Shortly thereafter, Stadius joined the Finnish radio news service as a
war correspondent to cover the conflict. In the 1920s, Stadius
went to France, where he lived for several years before
emigrating to Canada. Once in this country Stadius first found
employment as a migrant farmhand in Quebec and Saskatchewan.
Then, after a brief period of work at a General Motors plant in
Ontario, he moved to Montreal, where he established a firm to
import Finnish granite as building-construction material.
Stadius finally settled in Toronto in 1933, at which time he was
appointed honorary consul of Finland. About the same time, he
took out his Canadian citizenship papers and became a notary
public. For the next four and a half decades and until his death
on April 6,1977, Stadius occupied a position of enormous
influence and prestige in Toronto's Finnish community as a
successful businessman, consular agent and notary.
Throughout his life, Stadius actively participated in local
community organizations. For example, he became a founding
member of a local Scandinavian association in Regina. While in
Montreal, he was an active member of the Montrealin Suomi-Seura
(Montreal Suomi Society). Then, in Toronto, he soon joined the
Toronton Suomalainen Edistysliitto (Finnish Advancement
Association of Toronto). Following World War II, he was an
important organizer of Canadan Suomiapuyhdistys (Canada-Finland
Aid Society Fund), whose purpose was to provide relief to
war-torn Finland. During his later years, he was associated with
Toronton Suomi-taloyhdistys (Toronto's Finland-House
Association), the Toronto branch of the Finnish War Veterans in
Canada and the Finnish Canadian Cultural Federation, among others.
Nor was Stadius simply content to restrict his activities to the
Finnish community, for he was also dedicated to the idea of
building bridges of mutual understanding with the Canadian
society at large. To that end, he appeared before a standing
committee on immigration of the Senate of Canada. He also
contributed an article on the history of the Finns in Canada to
the Encyclapedia Canadiana and to the first edition of The
Canadian Family Tree. As well, he had served a term as
vice-chairman on one of Toronto's United Appeal campaigns. In
sum, Stadius represented many of the ideals that have since been
entrenched in our expanding concept of multiculturalism in Canada.
Originals, 1946-1977, 1.5 cm.
The papers of Sven Stadius, 1946-1977, consisting of: various
proxies prepared for the Founding Convention of the
Canada-Finland Aid Society Fund (Canadan Suomiapuyhdistys),
1946; constitution of Toronton Iän Kerho (Toronto Golden Age
Club), 1963; address list of Finnish-Canadian associations and
congregations in the metropolitan Toronto region, 1969; letters
patent of the Canada Finland Chamber of Commerce, 1971; a report
entitled "Kanadan siirtyneet Suomalaiset jääkärit" ("Finnish
jaegers [sharpshooters] who have immigrated into Canada"), 1973;
minutes of Toronton Suomalainen Edistysliitto (Finnish Advancement
Association of Toronto), 1975; newspaper clippings of obituaries of
Sven Stadius, 1977. This material is almost entirely in the
SUKSI, Edwin L. (1906-1982) MG 31, H 129
Edwin L. Suksi was born in 1906 in Teuva, Finland. When he
immigrated into Canada in 1924, he first went to Fort William,
Ontario, where he obtained employment as a bush-worker and then
as a union organizer for the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union of
Canada. Suksi moved to Sudbury in 1932, where he quickly became
involved in the development of Finnish-Canadian arts and
athletics. In 1935, he was appointed business manager of Vapaus
Publishing Company Limited. Because the FOC was Vapaus'
principal owner and controlling stockholder, Suksi's position as
chief executive officer of the company also secured him a
perennial seat on the FOC's National Executive Committee, which
underscored his rise to national prominence in the
Finnish-Canadian community. He also maintained an active
presence on the Executive Board of the FOC's Sudbury Local.
Another measure of Suksi's influence in the Finnish-Canadian
working-class movement was the frequency with which he was
called upon to deliver eulogies at the funerals of his comrades
(the custom was for the leaders of the movement to make funeral
orations either in conjunction with the services of a pastor or
in lieu of such). Following his retirement from Vapaus in 1971,
he became the founding president of the Finnish Senior Citizens
Club of Sudbury. When he died in 1982, Suksi was chairman of the
History Committee of the FOC.
Originals, n.d, 1934-1982, 20 cm; Finding Aid No. 1604.
The papers of Edwin L. Suksi, n.d., 1934-1982, consisting of:
Suksi's eulogies, written for delivery at the funerals of
ninety-eight Finnish-Canadian men and women; other speeches
prepared by Suksi for delivery on various festive occasions;
miscellaneous records arising from Suksi's organizational
activities and responsibilities with the National Executive
Committee and the Sudbury Local of the FOC, Vapaus Publishing
Company Limited, the Finnish Senior Citizens Club of Sudbury,
the Sudburyn Työväen Näyttämö (Workers' Theatre of Sudbury),
etc.; posthumous additions (obituary notices, etc., concerning
Suksi); and near-print publications of Vapaus Publishing Company
SUOMALAINEN KANSALLISSEURA (Loyal MG 28, V 87
Finns in Canada) ASSOCIATION (1928-1976)
Suomalainen Kansallisseura (Loyal Finns in Canada) Association,
dedicated to patriotic and educational activities amongst Finns
in the Vancouver area, was originally established in 1928 under
the name of Valistus-ja Edistysseura Suomi. This name was
subsequently translated into English as the Cultural and
Progress Association Suomi-and it was the version that was
officially adopted. Since the English name was actually a
mis-translation of the Finnish, the association was frequently
referred to as Sivistys-ja Edistysseura Suomi by those
re-translating the flawed English translation back into the
Finnish (for example, see Ulkosuomalaislehti, Vol. 2, No. 2, 15
February 1929). The problem was resolved in 1932 when the
association renamed itself Kansallisseura Suomi. In the same
year, it became the local affiliate of the Central Organization
of the Loyal Finns in Canada. The association was also a major
participant in the founding of two other local Finnish
organizations: the Fennos Athletic Club (1931) and the Vancouver
Finlandia Club (1971). The association, now known as the
Suomalainen Kansallisseura, ceased to be active in 1971 and was
formally dissolved in 1976, at which time its remaining assets
were transferred to the Vancouver Finlandia Club.
Originals, 1928-1977, 9.5 cm.
The records of the Suomalainen Kansallisseura Association,
1928-1977, consisting of: a membership dues book [of Valistus-
ja Edistysseura Suomi/Kansallisseura Suomi], 1928-1935; an
account book of Valistus-ja Edistysseura Suomi/Kansallisseura
Suomi, 1928-1952; two minute books of the Entertainment
Committee of Kansallisseura Suomi, 1933-1935 and 1933-1950;
printed constitutions of the Suomalainen Kansallisseura, n.d.,
1971; a copy of a letter from Sub Koskinen to Keijo Seppälä,
concerning the association's dissolution and the establishment
of the Vancouver Finlandia Club, 1977. This material is all in
the Finnish language with the exception of the printed
constitutions, which are bilingual (Finnish and English).
SÄILÄ, Vilho (1886-1980) MC 31, H 118
Vilho Säilä was born on June 21, 1886, in the parish of
Alastaro, Finland. Apprenticed at the age of fourteen to his
uncle, Säilä began to acquire the skills of a master tailor.
Säilä emigrated to Canada in 1907, taking up permanent residence
in Toronto. His initiation into the organizational life of the
local Finnish community grew out of his association with Iso
Paja (The Big Shop), a Finnish tailoring co-operative
established by Jaakko Lintala (later known as James Lindala) and
Jussi Ranta in Toronto in 1904. The tailors of Iso Paja, it should
be noted, then constituted a driving force in the affairs of the Finnish
Society of Toronto, which eventually became Local No. 1 of the
FSOC. Säilä was elected national secretary of the FSOC in 1912,
being the second person to hold that post. He was succeeded by
J.W. Ahlqvist in 1913. Thereafter, Säilä served in various other
capacities on national and local executive bodies of the FSOC
and its successor organizations. Säilä died in Toronto in 1980.
Originals, n.d, 1939-1978, 5 cm.
The papers of Vilho Säilä, n.d., 1939-1978, consisting of:
Säilä's manuscripts, including a draft article entitled
"Miljoonakaupunkin sumussa" and miscellaneous notes, n.d.; a
notebook, containing his manuscript drafts of letters, articles
and memoirs, n.d., 1965-1973; a notebook of his manuscript
memoirs, "Muistoja elämästäni," 1975; a notebook of his
manuscript memoirs, "Muistelmia elämästäni," etc., 1975-1978; a
notebook containing a draft manuscript of his speech, "Syntymä
päiväni 90 v.," 1976; a printed booklet, Yhteis-sointu [festival
program of the FOC's Suomalaisten Laulu-ja Soittojuhlat], 1939;
a mimeographed typescript of "Tapahtuma kerto," being a poem by
Jussi Latva, 1945; newspaper and other clippings, including
"CJS-sisukas taistelija 65:n vuoden ajan" by V. Säilä, 1976, and
"The Big Shop: Finnish Immigrant Tailors in Toronto" by Satu
Repo, ; a scrapbook prepared by Säilä, entitled "Canadan
Suomalaisen Järjestön kuvia 65 v. ajalta," 1976-1977. This
material is primarily in the Finnish language.
THUNDER BAY, ONTARIO, St. John the MG 9, D 7-37
Evangelist (Anglican) Church, and St. Ansgarius
The history of St. John the Evangelist (Anglican) Church of
Thunder Bay, Ontario, can be traced as far back as 1872, that
is, to the earliest period of English settlement in Thunder Bay
when that area was still known as Prince Arthur's Landing. St.
Ansgarius (Lutheran) Church of Port Arthur. Ontario, was
established decades later to serve the growing population of
Swedish and Finnish immigrants who had settled there between the
turn of the century and World War I. St. Ansgarius was
ultimately absorbed by St. John the Evangelist.
Microfilm, 1872-1926, 2 reels, M-2820, M2821.
The records of St. John the Evangelist and St. Ansgarius
Churches, 1872-1926, consisting of: parish registers for St.
John the Evangelist, 1872-1926, and the parish register of St.
Ansgarius, 1906-1912. Included are historical notes and
"censuses" of St. John's parish, 1877 and 1903, and of St.
Ansgarius' congregation, ca. 1907.
TOMBS, Laurence Chalmers (1903- ) MG 55/31, No. 63
Laurence Chalmers Tombs was born in Quebec City, Quebec, in
1903, but received his primary and secondary school education in
Montreal. He also attended McGill University there, and was
awarded his BA and MA degrees in 1924 and 1926 respectively. He
then studied abroad at New College, Oxford, and the University
of Geneva, earning a DScP from the latter institution. Tombs's
working career began with a brief stint on the editorial staff
of the Quebec Daily Telegraph in 1921-1922. In 1926, he joined
Guy Tombs Limited, a firm of freight, shipping and travel agents
established in 1921. He also taught at McGill University as an
extension lecturer in 1927-1928. In 1930, he left Guy Tombs
Limited to become a member of the Communications and Transit
Section at the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. During
his stay there, Tombs was entrusted with twenty-two League
missions in Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary
Poland, Portugal, Sweden and the USA. He also carried out
research on international organizations in European air
transport for the Social Science Research Council, New York,
1932-1934, and served as a member of the International
Commission for Assistance of Spanish Child Refugees in Paris,
with missions in France and Ireland in 1939. He resumed his work
with Guy Tombs Limited later that year, ultimately serving as
president of the company from 1964 to 1980, and thereafter as
chairman. As well as working for the family firm, he continued
to hold a variety of offices in a wide assortment of private,
semi-governmental and governmental organizations at the
provincial, national and international level, including the
Executive Council of the Province of Quebec, International Air
Transport Association, World Travel Congress (Paris, 1951; Rome,
1953; San Francisco, 1954), and the Universal Organization of
Travel Agents Associations.
In the Finnish community, Tombs is best remembered for his many
years of distinguished service as consul (1950-1962) and consul
general (1962-1970) of Finland. He also served as a delegate of
Finland to the Assembly of the International Civil Aviation
Organization (1950-1952) and as a member of the Finnish
delegation to Expo `67. He is president emeritus of the
Canadian-Scandinavian Foundation, an organization dedicated to
strengthening the links between Canada and the Nordic Countries
(that is, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). Among
the many prestigious foreign honours that have been conferred
upon him, Tombs proudly includes that of Commander of the
Finnish Order of the Lion.
Originals, 1929-1986, 8 cm.
The papers of Laurence Chalmers Tombs, 1929-1986, consisting of:
Tombs' miscellaneous correspondence and publications relating to
Finland and his career as Finland's consular representative in Canada.
TOPPILA, Kyösti Eemili (Eemil) (1886-1958) MG 31, H 104
Pastor Kyösti Eemili (Eemil) Toppila was born in Siikajoki,
Finland, on July 22, 1886. Before emigrating to Canada, Toppila
was employed by the Suomen Merimieslähetysseura/Finska
Sjömansmissionsällskapet (Finnish Seamen's Mission Society). In
the late 1920s, he served with the society's seamen's mission in
Liverpool, England. In the fall of 1931, he was transferred to
the society's Hamburg station in Germany. In 1936, Toppila
received his call as pastor to the Agricola Finnish Evangelical
Lutheran Congregation (Suomalainen Evankelis-Luterilainen
Agricola Seurakunta) in Toronto, Ontario. Toppila continued in
the service of his Toronto congregation until illness forced his
retirement in 1958. Toppila died on October 23, 1959.
Originals, n.d,. 1905-1958, 20 cm; Finding Aid No. 1357.
The papers of K.E. Toppila, n.d., 1905-1958, consisting of:
Toppila's correspondence, n.d, 1911-1958; financial records
relating to Toppila's tenure with the Finnish Seamen's Mission
Society's Hamburg station, n.d., 1928-1933; newspaper clippings,
n.d, 1905-1958; biographical and other personal papers
concerning Toppila, including school and university records,
addresses, speeches and recommendations; Toppila's sketches,
notes and printed matter and speeches, n.d., 1918-1948. The
material is variously in the English, Finnish, German,
Norwegian, Russian and Swedish languages.
TYöKANSA MG 28, V 156
Työkansa (The Work People), the second Finnish-language
newspaper in Canada, probably began publication as early as
September-October 1907, and certainly no later than December of
that year. Published by the Finnish Publishing Company Limited
of Port Arthur, Ontario, Työkansa first appeared as a weekly
newspaper. It was then published twice weekly and, from 1912 and
until the parent company's bankruptcy in 1915, daily. The last
issue appeared on June 15, 1915. The newspaper was subtitled
"Ainoa suomenkielinen sanomalehti Canadassa-Työväestön
äänenkannattaja (The only Finnish-language newspaper in Canada-
The organ of the working folk)," for it served as the official
organ of the Finnish Socialist Branches of the Socialist Party
of Canada. When the FSOC was founded in 1911, the newspaper soon
declared itself to be the voice of the new organization. The
Finnish Publishing Company also published Väkäleuka, a
twice-monthly satirical magazine, and several other periodicals,
including Airue, Kevät Valo, Murtava Voima and Työkansan Nuoli,
as well as numerous books and pamphlets.
The federal government's declaration in 1918 that Finnish was an
"enemy language" under the War Measures Act ultimately led to the
destruction in Canada of all but a handful of original issues of
Työkansa. Rather than be charged with the possession of copies
of a defunct newspaper in an "enemy language," most of
Työkansa's Canadian subscribers discreetly chose to destroy
those issues that they had on hand (a course that they
frequently preferred not to take with more treasured items like
books). For that reason, the most complete known run of Työkansa
now survives in the Tyoväen Arkisto in Helsinki, for subscribers
in Finland did not face the same restrictions as did those in
Canada. One complete run of Tyakansa had been preserved in this
country, but it was shipped to Soviet Karelia in the 1930s and
is said to have been destroyed there during World War II.
Microfilm, 1911-1915, 7 reels, K-190 to K-196.
Microfilmed issues of Tyokansa, 1911-1915, consisting of: copies
of originals in the possession of the Tyovaen Arkisto. This
material is in the Finnish language.
VANCOUVER FINLANDIA CLUB MG 28, V 90
The Vancouver Finlandia Club was established in 1971 as a
non-religious and non-political cultural organization for
Finnish Canadians in the Vancouver area. To a large extent, it
was the product of a merger between the Suomalainen
Kansallisseura (Loyal Finns in Canada) Association and the
Vancouver Lodge of the United Finnish Kaleva Brothers and
Sisters Federation. Chief among the club's aims has been its
desire to serve as a cultural bridge, on the one hand, between
the local Finnish-Canadian community and Canadian society as a
whole and, on the other hand, between Canada and Finland.
Perhaps the club's most ambitious project to date occurred with
the transformation of its newsletter, Tiedottaa, into a
general-interest news monthly, Länsirannikon Uutiset, for the
wider Finnish community on the West Coast.
Originals, 1971-1977, 2.5 cm.
The records of the Vancouver Finlandia Club, 1971 -1977,
consisting of: its constitution and by-laws, 1971; miscellaneous
copies of its newsletters, Tiedottaa, 1975, and Länsirannikon
Uutiset, 1976-1977. This material is primarily in the Finnish
VANCOUVER FINNISH ORGANIZATION MG 28, V 113
OF CANADA LOCAL NO.55
The origins of Vancouver FOC Local No.55 can be traced back to
the Vancouver Finnish Socialist Local No. 45 (Vancouverin
Suomalainen Sosialisti Osasto N:o 45), an association
established in 1906 as an affiliate of the Socialist Party of
Canada. In 1910, a breakaway group from Local No. 45
formed the rival Vancouverin Suomalainen Työväen Yhdistys
Raivaaja (Raivaaja Finnish Workers' Association of Vancouver).
In the spring of 1911, the new association joined the Canadian
Socialist Federation and was renamed Vancouverin Suomalainen
Sosialistiyhdistys Raivaaja (Raivaaja Finnish Socialist
Association of Vancouver). The next year it became Finnish
Socialist Local No. 2 (Vancouverin Suomalainen Sosialisti Osasto
N:o 2) of the British Columbia District of the FSOC, which, in
turn, was affiliated to the SDPC. Following the suppression of
the FSOC in the fall of 1918, the members of Local No. 2
successively associated themselves with the OBU and the WPC.
Then, in 1927, they joined the FOC as Local No. 55. Thereafter,
Local No. 55 became one of the most vigorous branches in that
organization and, indeed, it has remained so to this day. One of
its more recent duties has been to look after the affairs of the
defunct Webster's Corners FOC Local No. 60.
Originals, n.d., 1910-1985, 47 cm; Finding Aid No. 1626.
The records of Vancouver FOC Local No. 55, n.d., 1910-1985,
consisting of: minute books, financial records and miscellaneous
manuscripts of the FOC's Vancouver Local and its predecessors,
n.d, 1911-1983; and the records of Websters' Corners FOC Local
No. 60 and its predecessors, including minute books, financial
and membership records, and miscellaneous records, n.d.,
1919-1985. This material is primarily in the Finnish language.
VAPAA SANA PRESS LIMITED (est. 1931) MG 28, V 42
The origins of the Finnish-language newspaper Vapaa Sana (Free
Press) can be traced to Co-Optas, the bulletin of the
Co-operative Trading Association of Sudbury Limited (Co-Optas),
which first appeared in the early autunm of 1931. The
individuals associated with this publication consisted of
dissidents from the FOC and editorial staff of its newspaper
Vapaus as well as the social-democratic sympathizers on
Co-Optas' Board of Directors. They used this newsletter as part
of their bid to free Co-Optas' chain of co-operative stores in
Northern Ontario from the influence of the more radical element
there. They and their supporters also formed the Finnish
Canadian Workers' and Farmers' Federation (Canadan Suomalaisten
Työläisten ja Farmarien Liitto) in October of the same year. At
its founding convention, the federation resolved to publish its
own newspaper. Meanwhile, an associated group then established
the Co-operative Publishing Association of Canada, giving it the
mandate to publish Vapaa Sana. Thereafter, the editor of
Co-Optas transferred his attention to the publication of Vapaa
Sana, the first issue of which appeared on December 22, 1931. In
1932, Vapaa Sana was declared the official organ of the Finnish
Canadian Workers' and Farmers' Federation. In August 1936, the
federation decided to establish a separate publishing company
to publish its own newspaper. Thus, in October of that year,
Vapaa Sana Press Limited received its charter.
Originals, 1922-1985, 5.025 m.
The records of Vapaa Sana Press Limited, 1922-1985, including:
the records it donated in 1976, comprising the "historic" files
of the newspaper, which consist of, in addition to the records
of Vapaa Sana, records of affiliated and related organizations
and miscellaneous newspaper files; and the records it donated in
1988, comprising the "dormant" files of the Vapaa Sana Press Limited.
Originals, 1934-1957, 2.5 cm.
The records of Vapaa Sana Press Limited, 1934-1957, consisting
of: subscription and circulation lists, financial statements and
correspondence especially relating to Vapaa Sana's early
business, editorial and political activities, n.d., 1933-1956;
correspondence, circubars and minutes of the Finnish Canadian
Workers' and Farmers' Federation, and the constitution and
by-laws of the Ontario Section of the Co-operative Commonwealth
Federation (CCF), n.d., 1934-1937; constitutions of the Finnish
Canadian League for Democracy and the Pioneer Branch, and
bulletins concerning the establishment and dissolution of the
League, n.d., [1948-1957]; bylaws and amendments to the by-laws
of the Eglinton Co-operative Corporation Limited, 1936, 1937;
newspaper clippings related to Finnish-Canadian activities, and
issues of two newspapers, Finnish Kommunisti (vol. 1: No. 3
[n.p.]) and Viikko-Uutiset (No. 22, 1937 [Toronto, Ontario]),
n.d., [ca. 1918, 1940], 1937.
Originals, 1922-1985, 5 m.
The records of Vapaa Sana Press Limited, 1922-1985, consisting
of: correspondence, legal documents, financial records, subscription
records, draft articles, newspaper clippings, publications and
other material. This material is in the Finnish and English languages.
VIITA (ISOVIITA) FAMILY, Val d'Or, Quebec MC 31, H 106
Mr. and Mrs. Väinö Eerikki Isoviita (later shortened to Viita)
first came to Canada from Finland sometime prior to the
mid-1930s. They appear to have lived in Montreal for some time
before returning to Finland on a visit in 1937. Upon their
return to Canada, the Viita Family settled in the Val-d'Or
region of Quebec, where Mr. Viita worked in the mining industry
Photocopies, n.d., 1936-1958, 2 cm.
The papers of the Viita Family, n.d., 1936-1958, consisting of:
a passport issued by the Consulate General of Finland in
Montreal to Väinö Viita, 1937; certificates concerning landed
immigrant status, citizenship and employment, 1937, 1951, 1952;
personal correspondence to the family, n.d., 1936, 1941;
correspondence concerning Val d'Or donations to the
Canada-Finland Aid Society Fund, n.d., 1946; correspondence
concerning the family's activities in the Finnish community,
n.d., 1940, 1950; pages from the family guest book, 1946-1958;
newspaper clippings concerning the family's obituary notices,
etc., n.d., 1947-1950. This material is in the Finnish and
WRIGHT, Helen and Bill (fi. 1921-1967) MC 31, D 209
Helen and Bill Wright were a married couple who taught school in
a railway school car. The railway school car, in which the
Wrights lived and worked, travelled to isolated communities in
northern Ontario that were without their own schools and
teachers. The route of the Wrights' railway car changed from
year to year, depending on which stations had school-age
children with no access to other schools. From 1937 and for some
time thereafter, their car covered the Chapleau to White River
route. Many of the pupils taught by the Wrights were noted to be
of either Finnish or Indian descent.
Originals, 1928-1964, 129 pp.
The papers of Helen and Bill Wright, 1928-1964, consisting of:
correspondence to Bill's parents, which has been compiled into a
booklet entitled "Dear Folk 1928-1954," by an unknown author
with the help of the Wright Family from correspondence found in
the family home at Matheson, Ontario.
YLÖNEN-ENROS, Matti Ensio (1915-1985) MG 31, H 140
Matti Ensio Ylönen-Enros was born in Pieksamäki, Finland. He
emigrated to Canada in 1928 to join his mother, Hilja Sofia [née
Ylönen] and her husband, Charles Enros [Kalle Enroos], at which
time he adopted the surname of his stepfather. Beginning with
his first regular employment at the age of fifteen on the
Beauharnois power project in Quebec, most of Enros' working life
revolved around the construction industry. By the time of his
retirement in 1980, his list of accomplishments included the
supervision of many major construction projects across Canada
and in the United States for a variety of prominent firms in the
industry. He was a veteran of the Finnish army, both for having
completed his compulsory military service in Finland prior to
his emigration abroad and for volunteering to serve in the
Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939-1940. He was also a World War II
veteran of the Canadian armed forces (1945). He last resided in Hull,
Quebec, where he completed his "Autobiography of Matti Ensio
Ylönen-Enros" just a few months before his death in 1985.
Originals, n.d., 1924-1985, 6 cm.
The papers of Matti Ensio Ylönen-Enros and family, n.d.,
1924-1985, consisting of: Enros' typescript memoir, entitled
"Autobiography of Matti Ensio Ylönen-Enros," 1985; passports,
certificates, diplomas, etc., relating to Enros and his family,
n.d, 1924-1978; correspondence and newspaper clippings
concerning Enros' "Letters to the Editor" regarding the adoption
of a national anthem, bilingualism and the Parti Québecois,
1974-1977; postcards received by Enros and family, n.d.,
1928-1979; one issue of the newspaper Länsi-Suomi, July 2, 1976;
newspaper clippings concerning Enros and family, n.d.,
1940-1984; lyrics to songs (some composed by Enros?), 1935,
1937, 1972; "Orders of the Day No. 34, March 14, 1940," by Field
Marshal Mannerheim, and other printed material concerning
Finland, n.d., 1940; untitled book containing a photographic
record of the Finnish army in the pre-World War II period (taken
about the time Enros completed his compulsory military service
in Finland), n.d. [ca.1935]. This material is in the English and
YRITYS ATHLETIC CLUB OF TORONTO (est. 1906) MG 28, V 50
Yritys Athletic Club of Toronto holds the distinction of being
one of the oldest Finnish-Canadian sports clubs. It was founded
under the auspices of the Finnish Society of Toronto in March
1906 as Woimistelu ja Urhcilu Seura Yritys (The Attempt
Gymnastic and Athletic Club). Although Yritys later established
itself as a fully independent organization, it continued to
maintain close ties with the Finnish Society of Toronto.
Moreover, because the Finnish Society of Toronto has
historically served as Local No. 1 of the FOC, Yritys has been
closely associated with the latter as well. These bonds were
further reinforced through its affiliation with the FCASF, which
has always had close fraternal ties with the FOC.
Originals, n.d, 1907-1952, 41 cm; Finding Aid No. 652.
The records of Yritys Athletic Club of Toronto, n.d., 1907-1952,
consisting of: minutes of annual and general meetings and of the
Executive Committee, 1910-1952; membership lists, dues records,
correspondence, financial and other records, 1907-1948; minutes
of the Entertainment Committee, 1933-1938, 1941-1947; minutes of
the Women's Division, 1929-1934; minutes of the Track and Field
Division, 1933-1936; minutes of the Athletic Committee (includes
several pages of financial records), n.d, 1945. These records
are primarily in the Finnish language.
OTHER ARCHIVAL SOURCES ON FINNISH CANADIANS
OTHER SOURCES AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF CANADA
Interested researchers are advised to consult the other media
divisions in the National Archives for details concerning their
particular holdings on the Finnish-Canadian community. These
divisions include: the Cartographic and Architectural Archives
Division, which keeps cartographic and architectural records;
the Documentary Art and Photography Division, which holds
pictorial and photographic records; the Government Archives
Division, which has the custody of the records of the Government
of Canada, its departments and agencies; the Moving Image and
Sound Archives Division, which is responsible for motion picture
film, video and sound recordings; and the National Archives
Library, which has books, pamphlets and other printed matter.
When non-manuscript material is received by the Manuscript
Division, it is transferred to the custody of the appropriate
media division. Following is a list of material that has been
received by the Manuscript Division under the Finnish Canadian
Archives Program, and that the Manuscript Division has since
transferred to the other media divisions. Also included here are
some of the other more important sources in the holdings of
those divisions that contain documentation on the
Finnish-Canadian community (noted by an asterisk [*]):
Documentary Art and Photography Division
Benson Family (photos)
Canada. Department of Immigration and Colonization (photos)*
Canada. Department of Manpower and Immigration (photos)*
Canada. Department of the Interior (photos)*
Canada. Immigration Division (photos)*
Finnish Canadian Rest Home Association (photos, lapel pins)
Frontier College (photos)
Heikkilä, Vihtor (photos)
Hirvikoski, Aino (photos)
Jouppi, Einar M. (photo)
Kangas, Vihtor (photos)
Mansfield, Lempi D. (photos, lapel pins, ribbons)
Penttinen, Lauri (photos)
St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of Montreal (photos)
Suomalainen Kansallisseura (Loyal Finns in Canada) Association (lapel pins)
Tonteri, Antti (photo)
Topley, William James (photos)*
Toppila, Kyösti (photos)
Vapaa Sana (photos)
Viita [Isoviita] Family (photos)
Yritys Athletic Club of Toronto (photos)
Government Archives Division
Citizenship and Immigration (RC 26)*
External Affairs (RC 25)*
Immigration Branch (RG 76)*
Justice (RG 13)*
Labour (RG 27)*
Militia and Defence (RG 9)*
National Defence (RG 24)*
Office of the Custodian of Enemy Property (RG 1l7)*
Privy Council (RG 2)*
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RG 18)*
Secretary of State (RG 6)*
Solicitor General (RG 73)*
Moving Image and Sound Archives Division
Haapalainen, Antti William (tape)
Lehto, Martha (tapes)
Radio Canada International (discs, tapes)*
St. Michael's Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of Montreal (tapes)
Sveriges Radio (tapes)
Thunder Bay Labour History Project (tapes)*
SOURCES AT OTHER INSTITUTIONS
Various provincial, regional, municipal, university religious
and other private organizational archives across the country
have varying amounts of archival material concerning the
Finnish-Canadian community. Naturally, one is likely to find
more of such material in repositories that are located in those
areas where Finnish settlement has been the heaviest and less
where Finns have not tended to settle.
Hence, it is hardly surprising that the Province of Ontario,
which historically has had the largest concentration of Finnish
Canadians in this country, should have so many public and
semi-public repositories with important holdings of archival
material relating to the Finnish-Canadian community. The
Archives of Ontario (Toronto, Ontario) has a great many sources
on the Finns scattered throughout the departmental records of
the province. These records have been greatly augmented by the
archival material transferred to it by the Multicultural History
Society of Ontario (Toronto, Ontario), which the latter acquired
from the Finnish community during the late 1970s and early
1980s. The one truly national collection included in that
transferred material was the Finnish Canadian Historical Society
collection. Note, too, that the Multicultural History of Ontario
still retains a portion of the Finnish material that it collected,
principally printed matter consisting of newspapers, books and pamphlets.
Other Ontario repositories with important Finnish archival
collections include Lakehead University Library (Thunder Bay,
Ontario), which has among its holdings the famed Finlandia Club
collection, and the Thunder Bay Historical Museum, which houses
the collections of the Thunder Bay Finnish Canadian Historical
Society. Laurentian University (Sudbury, Ontario) also collects
Finnish-Canadian archival material and publications. Nor should
one forget the documentation available in the repositories of
other organizations that interacted with the Finnish-Canadian
community, for example, as can be found in the Archives of the
United Church of Canada (Toronto, Ontario).
The Finnish-Canadian population in British Columbia is second
only to that of Ontario in numbers. Consequently, it is natural
that repositories in British Columbia have acquired
Finnish-Canadian material. The University of British Columbia
Library (Vancouver, British Columbia), for example, has the C.P.
Czartoryski collection, which includes archival material created
by members of the Kalevan Kansa colony and copies of the records
of the Vancouver FOC Local No. 55. It also has custody of
several significant record collections of unions in which Finns
played a prominent role. These include the record collections of
the OBU, the IWW, and the International Union of Mine, Mill and
Smelter Workers. The Provincial Archives of British Columbia in
Victoria, of course, also has scattered references to the
Finnish-Canadian past in its holdings of the provincial
government's departmental records.
Although the Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories
may not establish the existence of Finnish material at any other
institutions than those mentioned above, researchers may still
find relevant archival material in other institutions. For
example, it is known that the archives of other provincial
governments and their agencies include useful documentation
(even if this material is sometimes incidental in nature).
Regional, municipal and local archives-particularly in the
historic areas of Finnish settlement in Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba and Quebec-also contain valuable sources. As well, some
material still remains in private hands.
The Turun yliopiston yleisen historian laitos (Institute of
General History of the University of Turku, Turku, Finland), as
the result of the extensive acquisitions and microfilming
program that it conducted in Canada and the United States over
the past few decades, is the chief source of Finnish-Canadian
archival material in Finland. In addition to the originals and
microfilms of papers and records that it acquired from
Finnish-Canadian individuals and organizations, the institute
also holds the completed questionnaires from a survey that it
sponsored of Finns in North America. It has also compiled an
impressive data bank of passenger lists and other records of
emigrant departures from Finland. Another of the institute's
important holdings is the America Letter Collection, which is
the result of one of its projects to microfilm the
correspondence that had been sent by Finns in Canada and the
United States to friends and relatives living in certain
specified areas of Finland.
The records of various departments and agencies of the Finnish
government-especially those of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs-have
documentation on Finnish Canadians. Such records are maintained
either by the creating departments or by the Suomen
valtionarkisto (National Archives of Finland, Helsinki). The
latter institution also has private collections relating to
Finns in Canada, for example, the Aini Wetton papers, which
include information on veterans of the Murmansk Finnish Legion
who emigrated to this country. The Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto
(Helsinki University Library Helsinki), in addition to
possessing one of the finest collections anywhere of Finnish
publications with North American imprints, also has various
manuscript collections pertaining to the Finnish-Canadian
community. Because of the wealth of material that they contain
on the radical movement amongst the Finns in North America,
neither the Työväen Arkisto (Archives of the Finnish Labour
Movement, Helsinki) nor the Kansan Arkisto (People's Archives,
Helsinki) should be ignored as sources of potentially valuable
archival material. The Siirtolaisuusinstituutti (Institute of
Migration, Turku), the various provincial archives, the Suomen
kielen nauhoitearkisto (Finnish Language Tape Archives) and the
Ääniarkisto, OY Yleisradio AB (Sound Archives of the Finnish
Broadcasting Company, Helsinki) also have useful documentation.
In the United States
Insofar as American institutions are concerned, it is possible
to identify only the major repositories where useful archival
sources might be obtained. The Finnish American Historical
Archives of Suomi College (Hancock, Michigan), the Archives of
the Suomi Conference of the Lutheran Church of America (Rio
Rancho, New Mexico), the Immigration History Research Center
(Minneapolis, Minnesota) and the Bentley Historical Library of
the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have large
holdings of archival material generated by the Finnish-American
community, portions of which document the activities shared by
that community with its counterpart across the border. The
National Archives of the United States (Washington, District of
Columbia) also has documentation on Finnish Canadians,
especially in the record groups of those federal departments and
agencies concerned with immigration, justice, defence and
affairs of state. The Nordlin Library of the University of
Colorado (Boulder, Colorado) holds records of the Western
Federation of Miners and the International Union of Mine, Mill
and Smelter Workers, two union organizations in which Finns on
both sides of the border were heavily involved.
Other American repositories known to have collections relating
to Finnish immigration history include: the Archives of Labour
History and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University (Detroit,
Michigan); the Archives of the Hoover Institution of War,
Revolution and Peace, Stanford University (Stanford,
California); the Minnesota Historical Society Library (St. Paul,
Minnesota); the New York State Archives, the New York State
Library (Albany N.Y.); the archives of the American Scandinavian
Foundation (New York, New York); the archives of the
Finnish-American Cultural Society of Baltimore (Baltimore,
Maryland); the archives of the Finnish-American Historical
Society of the West (Portland, Oregon); the Finnish Cultural
Center, Fitchburg State College (Fitchburg, Massachusetts); the
archives of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison,
Wisconsin); and the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University
(Durham, North Carolina). These, together with various other
state and local Finnish-American historical societies and
organizations too numerous to mention, should yield further
sources of value.
In the Soviet Union
Lastly, it is known that the FOC shipped a portion of its
archival holdings to Soviet Karelia in the 1930s. The Soviet
Union has since claimed that this material was destroyed during
World War II. Should this not be the case and that material
still exists, it is unlikely that a western researcher would be
allowed access to it.
Bill Martin, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
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