CADILLAC'S VILLAGE OR "DETROIT UNDER CADILLAC." WITH LIST OF PROPERTY OWNERS AND A HISTORY OF THE SETTLEMENT 1701 TO 1710. COMPILED BY C. M. BURTON DETROIT, 1896.

Map and List of the First Colonists Directory of Residents, 1701-1710 Fr. Denissen's Letter.
A series of articles prepared by me for the Sunday News-Tribune of Detroit, and which appeared in that paper during the summer of 1896, have been arranged into the form of a pamphlet for better preservation and distribution, among those who are interested in the study of Detroit's early history. Notwithstanding a good deal of labor has been expended in attempting to make this a perfect work, I am painfully aware that it contains many errors, but I am also certain that it contains a vast amount of entirely new historical matter, that can, and probably will, be used by other students than myself. The Rev. Christian Denissen, concerning whose work I have spoken more at large in the following pages, has consented, at my urgent request, to correct a few of the mistakes in my work, and I have gladly availed myself of his assistance, and have added his work as a supplement to my own. DETROIT, Nov.20, 1896. C. M. BURTON.
The early history of Detroit is scarcely known. The records that contain its story are to be found in Montreal, Quebec and Paris. Mackinac was established long before Detroit was thought of, but it existed merely as a missionary post, and as a rendezvous for voyageurs and a depot for supplies for the Indian trade. It was never a colony, and no thought of colonization was ever coupled with its name, nor was it established or maintained with any expectation that a colony weuld be founded. It was so far north, and the climate was so cold that there was no certainty of a corn crop any year, and Indian corn was the only bread food that was raised until after the establishment of Detroit. The Indians friendly to French interests were all living in the north, for they had been driven from this part of the country by the Iroquois in the long series of wars, which-immediately preceded the establishment of a military post at this point. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac had been the commandant at Mackinac from 1694 to 1698, and while occupying that position had cast his eye southward as a better location than Mackinac for founding a colony. With the foresight of a skillful diplomat he reasoned that the location of a permanent colony on the Detroit river would tend to keep the English from trading among the upper or French Indians and, moreover, if the post once established was properly managed, the commandant could draw around it all the Indians of the west, and their numbers, added to the strength of a French garrison would compel a peace with the warlike Iroquois. He was right in his reasonings and if his plans had been carried out as he laid them one may reasonably think that the French power would still be strong in America. Having obtained permission from his government to found a colony at Detroit, he set out on his Errand in the spring of 1701, and reached the site of the future city on the 24th of July. The palisades, at once erected for the post, inclosed an arpent of land, a French acre of 192 feet on a side.
HUNTING FOR FURS.
Most of the business carried on in this western country was hunting the fur-bearing animals, preparing their furs for market, and transporting them to Montreal. But the hunters had to live, and a trade was carried on between the latter place and the upper country, as this was called, by means of canoes and bateaux. These canoes were loaded at Montreal and brought to Detroit either over the Ottawa river away up north, coming down through the Georgian bay, or through the Niagara route, over the Lakes Ontario and Erie. The latter route was the easier of the two, for there was but one portage at Niagara Falls, while over the Ottawa route there were at least 30 portages. The first trip Cadillac made was over the Ottawa route, for the French government feared that the Iroquois Indians would attack him if he went on the Niagara route, but the next year, 1702, there was less fear of tnose warlike Indians and the shorter and easier road was taken. There were traders, capitalists in a small way in Montreal, who fitted out these canoe loads of merchandise and sent them to the upper country. One of these merchants would employ a trustworthy voyageur who might, perhaps, have an interest in the enterprise, to fit out an expedition to the upper country. The canoe being loaded, agreements or contracts were made with a sufficient number of men to conduct the enterprise. All these agreements and contracts with the employees were reduced to writing before a notary in Montreal. If the parties were able to write they signed their names to the agreements, and if they were illiterate, that fact was stated in the contract. These contracts were retained by the notary, and now form one of the best evidences of tne early life of this first western colony. I have thousands of these agreements, extending from 1680 to 1760, and they contain not only the names of the early voyageurs, but their places of residence and occupations, dates of their visits to the western country, times and terms of employment, and they frequently show the value of services and commodities and the volume of trade carried on.
SPRANG UP, AS IF BY MAGIC.
To the Indians, the advent of Cadillac, with his little troop, was a revelation, and it worked a revolution. The little village sprang up as if by magic, and the Indians flocked to it from all sides; from all quarters they came, singly and in nations. What on the 23rd of July, 1701, was a wilderness, and on the next day was a houseless city of 100 souls, in eight months time was a rival of Montreal and Quebec in trade, had a population of 6,000 beings, and was the metropolis of America. The Indians, far outnumbering the whites, were encouraged to settle around the fort, and their villages, four or five in number, were above and below the palisaded inclosure. The next three years were devoted to the building up of the village and putting on a firm foundation the work already laid out. The lots within the palisades were all very small, generally about 20x25 feet, and probably entirely covered by buildings. The civilians owned their own houses, while those of the soldiers belonged to Cadi]lac. To the soldiers small gardens of half an acre each were fenced off, a short distance east of the inclosure and fronting on the east side of Randolph street, between the river and Fort street.
CITY'S ANCIENT BOUNDS.
It was not until 1704 that the founder obtained permission to make conveyances of the lands in and around the village, though it is very probable that the persons who took possession of parcels before that date, and built on or cultivated them, did so with the tacit understanding that their titles would be confirmed some day. By the time Cadillac had obtained permission to make transfers to his Inhabitants, the boundary lines of the village had grown too small, and so the palisades were set farther out, and new palisades built, to include a more extended territory. The principal street of the village was Ste. Anne street, running about parallel to the present Jefferson avenue, and occupying nearly the northerly line of that thoroughfare, so that the southern tier of lots and St. Louis street fell entirely in that street. The westerly line was not far from the present line of Shelby street, and the easterly line was a short distance west of Griswold street. At the easterly end, and at first without the palisades, was a church, occupying the ground, on which is the present banking house of A. Ives & Sons. When the village limits were extended, the line was moved to the east and west and reached to Griswold street on the east, and Wayne street on the west. The conveyances, made by Cadillac during the remainder of his stay in the place, were forwarded by him to the colonial office, and are now deposited in the department of marines, in Paris. Of all these conveyances, I have a complete copy, and have undertaken to arrange them in a manner to construct a map of Detroit, as it was in 1708. The arrangement of these tracts so as to form a village plat, has been a task of no small proportions, and has been accomplished only after weeks of diligent study.
VILLAGE ON HIGH GROUND.
It may be that this map is faulty. I have no doubt that it is, in some particulars. But it will do as a foundation to work from, and a better one may be constructed here-after, when more information can be obtained from which to work. I am better pleased with the form of the village, as Indicated on this map, than with any published map of later date. In order to prove the accuracy of the map, I had it traced on the present city map, and find the lines of lots existing before the fire of 1805, if many of which still serve as boundary lines of present buildings, coincide very nearly with the Cadillac conveyances. The map also indicates that the southerly line of the vlllage was nearly the center line of Jefferson avenue, and was thus on a high ground, while all other maps I have seen Indicate the southerly line as south of Jefferson avenue, on the verge of the slope toward the river. It seems to me reasonable that the palisades would not be driven in a hillside, and hence, that my conception of the village plat is more rational than the ideas of those who have platted the village on the verge of the hill. Now, about the real estate owners, and the prices they paid for the property owned by them. We must understand that the real estate itself was of no great value. There were millions of acres, unclaimed and uncultivated, to be had for the asking, so that the prices derived by Cadillac from his sales are really the prices which the purchasers were willing to pay for the protection afforded by his government, and by the palisades. Cadillac was the seigneur, or lord, and had applied for the office and title of marquis of Detroit; and these little parcels of laud he sold were disposed of on condition that the purchaser should occupy or cultivate, or retain possession of, in person or by tenant, and should pay to the lord an annual stipend. This was not great, but it was sufficient to keep the palisades in repair, to maintain the soldiery, and provide for Cadillac and his family. Perhaps the revenues would not be sufficient to do all this, but it did a part, and there were other sources of revenue on which the lord could depend. The trade of the post was in his hands, for some years, and a considerable revenue was obtained in this manner. The Company of the Colony had the exclusive right to the trade at Detroit at one time, and during this period, Cadillac had a salary of 2,000 livres, and was not obliged to maintain the soldiers at his expense. A livre was a French coin of the value of 20 cents, but at this time the relative value of this money was greater than at the present a time.
WINDMILL GRINDS THE CORN.
The company did not want Detroit colonized. They preferred to have the country devoted to hunting, rather than to agriculture, but they gave up everything to Cadillac in 1705, and after that date the whole expense of the government fell on his shoulders. There was another expense that fell alike on Cadillac and the inhabitants, and that was the maintenance of the church and the priest. The church itself, and all the vestments and paraphernalia, belonged to Cadillac, as his individual property. A large portion of the expense of maintaining the parish priest was also borne by him, but the inhabitants paid a part. Taxes, as we understand, them, were unknown to the people of that day, but those traders who came to Detroit solely to trade, and who did not reside here, were compelled to pay something for the church privileges that they enjoyed. Cadillac owned the public mill-a windmill-used to grind corn and wheat. This returned a year]y net revenue of 500 crowns.
EARLY LAND RENTALS.
On the accompanying map I have placed numbers on the various lots to conform to the report made by Cadillac. They do not agree with the order of alienation, but all the transfers were made between 1707 and 1710. The names of the purchasers, arranged according to the numbers on the map, are also given, with the consideration for each parcel. The names are sometimes indefinite, for these Frenchmen had curious habits of changing their name, passing by different names at different times, and even in the little village Cadillac did not seem to know the first names of all his people, as frequent references are made such as "a man named Rencontre," "a man named Beauregard." Generally, when a parcel of land was conveyed, there were two items in the consideration required. First, a fixed rental, payable every year and probably accepted in lieu of all taxes, except the tithes for maintaining the church, and second, a certain sum which Cadillac required for privileges extended to the purchaser, as for instance, suppose the purchaser was a blacksmith, Cadillac having the exclusive right of trading at the post, would grant this purchaser the right of blacksmithing to the exclusion of all others, and would receive an extra compensation for this privilege. The ownership of the land remained in Cadillac, and no man was entitled to his lot unless he took and maintained actual possession of it. If he abandoned it, it reverted to Cadillac, and he sold it to some other person. From references in some of the conveyances, it appears that there were transfers made to parties not included in the report. We know that a man named Boucherville, and another named St. Aubin owned lands, but we do not have their deeds. Cadillac's conveyances were not confined to the village. He granted a good many farms and the boundary lines of these tracts can be as distinctly traced as if made today. These farmers lived within the palisades, for it was sometimes dangerous to live unprotected by soldiers. The farmers had rents to pay for the farm lands, similar to the inhabitants of the village. But where a farmer had two places, one in the country, and one in the city, a different and lower rate of rents was demanded. This list doubtless contains the names of the most influential of the first settlers of Detroit, and many of them are familiar as the ancestors of the families of French descent, still remaining with us. I give the name of the lot owner, the number of his lot and the date of the conveyance and consideration paid. (See Map on opposite page.)
DETROIT'S ORIGINAL COLONISTS.
1 Pierre Chesne, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights given up, all payable in furs, or in such coined money as may be current. 2 Andre Chouet, dit Cameraud, March 10, 1707 for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 3 Pierre Taverau, dit La Grandeur, March 10, 1707 for 38 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was afterwards conveyed to Robert Germain. A sol, or sou, was a small coin, or penny. 4 Joseph Despre, or Depre, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 5 Solomon Joseph Du Vestin, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Richard le Michel Bizaillon. 6 Pierre Leger, dit Parisien, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Jacques Cardinal. 7 Bonaventure Complin, dit L'Esperance. March 10, 1707, for 24 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Francis Livernois. 8 Jacob de Marsac, dit Desrocher, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres and 2 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 9 Mr. D'Argenteuil, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Nicolas Rose. 10 Jean Richard, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was abandoned and afterward granted to Jacques Hubert. 11 Jean Labatier, dit Champaign, March 10, 1707, 2 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. This man's name is given in another place as Abatis. This lot was surrendered March 27, 1709. 12 Estienne Boutron, dit Major, March 10, 1707, 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot reverted to Cadillac and was newly granted to Antoine Magnant. 13 Pierre Hemard, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Jacques Hubert. 14 Antoine Dupuis, dit Beauregard. March 10, 1707, 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Jean Baptiste Duplessis. 15 Jacques Langlois, March 10, 1707, for 6 livres and 10 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 16 Guillaume Bouet, dit Deliard, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres and 10 sols rent, and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was subsequently sold to Pierre Robert. 17 Michel Masse, March 10, 1707, for 8 livres and 8 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 18 Michel Campo, March 10, 1707, for 5 livres and 6 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 19 Louis Normand, March 10, 1707, for 2 livres and 10 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This was subsequently sold to Alexis Lemoine. 20 Francois Tesee, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. On the 20th of June, 1710, this parcel was conveyed to Antoine Carriere. 21 Pierre Chantelon, March 10, 1707, for 56 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was later conveyed to Jean Le Soeur. 22 Francois Bienvenue, dit de L'Isle, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent, and 10 livres for other rights. Many descendants of this man still live in and around Detroit. They generally go by the name of Delisle, and some of them have coupled the two names together, as Bienvenue-Delisle. 23 Pierre Esteve, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 24 Blaise Surgere, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 25 Pierre Porrier, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 26 Antoine Ferron, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 27 Pierre Tacet, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This was afterwards sold to Jean Coutent. 28 Francois Fafard de Lorme, March 10, 1707, for 4 livres and 10 sols rent, and 10 livres for other rights. 29 Michel Disier, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 30 Jacob de Marsac, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This lot was sold to Charles Charon. 31 "A man named Rencontre," March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other privileges. There was a "Rencontre" street in the village, which, I suppose took its name from this person. 32 "A man named Desloriers," March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 33 "A man named Xaintonge," March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. The name seems to indicate that the owner of this parcel was an Indian, though it would not be very likely that an Indian would pay rent, or would follow a trade. He sold a lot to "a man named Bouche." 34 Jacques Du Moulin, March 10, 1708, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 35 Guilleaume Aquet, dit Laporte, March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for othet rights. This grantee in other places is named Aquenet. Pierre Chesne, who owned the lot on Ste. Anne street, adjacent to this lot, purchased it, thus giving him two frontages, one on Ste. Anne and the other on St. Joachim street. Pierre Chesne (or Chene, as it is now commonly called), was one of the most important men of that early day, and many of his descendants still reside in Detroit. 36 Louis Gustineau, March 10, 170S, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 37 Joseph Parent, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. Parent was a blacksmith. It has been stated by some who have written regarding Detroit's early history, that Parent and Pierre Roy were living among the Indians in the neighborhood of Detroit before the arrival of Cadillac and his party, and consequently that they were the first white people here. 38 Martin Sirier, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. Nicolas Rivard, afterwards purchased this parcel. 39 Quilenchive, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. The grantee was an Indian chief, I think, and he afterwards sold the parcel to Julien Dervisseau. 40 M. Derance, March 10, 1707, for 30 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 41 Du Figuier, March 10, 1707. for 54 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. The lot was surrendered by Du Figuier and resold to Paul Guillet. 42 La Montagne, called Pierre Mouet, March 10, 1707, for 4 livres, 10 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Baptiste Trudeau subsequently purchased this property. 43 Pierre Mallet, March 10, 1707, for 8 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 44 Antoine Dufresne, March 14, 1708, for 5 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 45 Jean Baptiste Chornie, March 10, 1708, for 32 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Subsequently transferred to Jean Chevalier. 46 Jean Casse, March 10, 1708, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Sold to Zacharie Plante. 47 Paul Langlois, March 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 48 Jerome Marliard, March 10, 1707, for 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 49 Andre Bombardie, Maich 10, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 5O Pierre Du Roy, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 51 Pierre Roy, March 10, 1707, for 3 livres 18 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 52 Francois Marque, March 10, 1707, for 26 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Jean Paquet purchased this lot. 53 Antoine Magnant, March 20, 1708, for 5 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 54 Francois Bonne, July 7, 1708, at 5 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 55 Toussaints Dardennes, March 20, 1708, at 30 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 56 Pierre Bassinet, March 20, 1708, at 20 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 57 Francois Brunet, June 20, 1708, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 58 Antoine Beauregard, July 17, 1708, at 12 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. This was surrendered to Cadillac. 59 Marie Le Page, March 20, 1707, at 3 livres 12 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. This is the only record of a conveyance to a woman in tne early Detroit. Madam Le Page had a husband living at this time, but subsequent events, as well as this conveyance, lead me to think that he had separated from her-probably with just cause. Her name and a little of her history appears in the directory below. 60 Jacques Campo, March 1, 1709, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 61 Jean Serond, March 10, 1707, at 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. Joseph Trudeau bought this lot subsequently. 62 Pierre Robert, March 14, 1709, at 6 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 63 Larramee, March 6, 1707, for 50 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 64 Rene Le Moine, March 20, 1709, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 65 Jacques Le Moine, Sept. 1, 1706, at 40 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 66 Paul Guillet, Dec. 10, 1709, at 6 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights. 67 Joseph Rinard, June 27, 1710, at 30 sols rent and 10 livres for other rights. 68 Antoine Tuffe, called du Fresne, June 21, 1710 at 2 livres rent and 10 livres for other rights.
CADILLAC'S TENANT FARMERS.
Of the garden lands within the fort we have the record of only two transfers of half an arpent each, one to Beauregard and the other to Delisle. The rate of rental in each case was 1 sol per foot, making 4 livres and 10 sols. The price fixes the size of a half arpent as 90 feet front. The farm lands, so far as we now know, were nearly all granted up stream, from the fort. One grant, and the only one of which we had positive knowledge, up to the discovery of the transfers I have recently unearthed, was to de Lorme. This farm is still called the de Lorme farm, from its original proprietor, and is situated in the township of Grosse Pointe, a short distance east of the present water works. Having the exact location of this farm, and the boundary lines of the others, it would not be as difficult a task to plan out the French concessions as it has been to map the ancient city. I have a list of 31 of these farm grants; some were made to lot owners in the city. The list of grantees is as follows: 1, Pierre Mallet; 2, Francois Fafard de Lorme; 3, Baptiste Gorion; 4, Jacob de Marsac; 5, Andre Bombardie; 6, Pierre Hemard; 7, Bonaventure Compien; 8. Jerome Marliard; 9, Pierre Esteve; 10, Estienne Boutron; 11, Antoine Dupuis; 12, Joseph Parent; 13. Michael Dizier; 14, Francois Bosseron; 15, Jacob de Marsac; 16, Antoine Dupuis (this is the same as No. 11, above); 17, Francois Marque; 18, Jacques L'Anglois; 19, Paul L'Anglois; 20, Antoine Texier; 21, Francois Jardis, 22. Pierre Chantelor; 23, Jean Richard; 24, "a man named Laloire; 25, Pierre Leger; 26, "a man named Lefleur;" 27, Michel Campos; 28. Jean Durant; 29, Blaise Surgere; 30, Francois Masse; 31, Damoissell Magdalaine de la Mothe (Cadillac's daughter), a tract of land extending from the River Ecorse, three leagues, 9 miles, with a depth of five leagues, 15 miles, and including Grosse Ile and all other islands in the vicinity. In addition to the above grants were 13 gardens, of half an arpent each, as follows: 1, Monsieur Dargenteuil: 2, Pierre Mallet; 3, Jacob de Marsac; 4, Jacques Langlois; 5, Louis Normand; 6, Pierre Esteve; 7, Jerome Marlier; 8, Michael Disier; 9, Estienne Boutron; 10, Bonaventure Compiens; 11, ?? Chantelor; 12, Pierre Porrier; 13, Pierre Leger. I believe that the above lists will give the names of every resident in Detroit up to the year 1708, excepting only the priest, the officers of the company and the soldiers.
CADILLAC'S HOMESTEAD. Where did Cadillac live?
I cannot answer this question satisfactorily now, though I think he lived on the northwest corner of St. Francois and Ste. Anne streets, near the church. If I am right his house was on what is now the north side of Jefferson avenue, half way between Griswold and Shelby streets, about where the old Masonic hall stands. You will observe that the properties bringing the highest prices were those on Ste. Anne street, in the immediate vicinity of this land. This would naturally follow, if the house of the cornmandant was located here, St. Anne Street, at this point, was the Woodward avenue of the little city, and here the aristocracy lived with Cadillac in their midst.
What kind of houses did they have?
From all I have so far learned, the modern idea of a log house was unknown to them. I think their houses, even those of the better classes, consisted of stakes, driven into the ground as closely together as possible and the interstices filled with mortar or mud. These pickets were cut off, even, at the top, and a pitch-roof of split rails put on. Sawing lumber by hand was too difficult a job to permit much sawed lumber to be used, and what would be thus obtained was for interior work, doors, shutters, etc. It is very probable that no houses had windows, except those of the wealthiest citizens. Glass, for windows, was doubtless very scarce and very expensive. I can find no certain record that there was any glass windows at all, though in the description of the church occurs the statement that it contained a window with shutters and sash frames between, "of 20 squares," each. The squares may refer to the small panes of glass, common even until a few years since, in church windows. A short time after Cadillac left Detroit to become governor of Louisiana, in 1711, he had a complete inventory of his belongings in Detroit, made by Pierre Chesne and Antoine Magnant, and the priest, Father Cherubin Deniaux, and this property was turned over to Pierre Roy for safe keeping. From this list we obtain an idea of the buildings owned by Cadillac, and I append their full description.
CADILLAC'S BUILDINGS.
A warehouse 37 1/2 feet long and 22 feet wide, 8 feet high, boarded top and bottom with thick planks of oak, the top with a good ridge and the bottom with square joints, with its shutters and doors and locks closing with a key, and a wooden staircase, a press for pressing furs, a counter, three shelves for books, lined with boards for one-fourth of the height. Another house of stakes in earth, 33 1/2 feet long, 19 feet wide and 8 feet high, half of planks above, with joints in a good ridge and the rest of stakes, and below, half of beams with square joints, half mortised, and the other part of split stakes, with four cabinets, with their doors and locks closing with keys. The said house having window shutters and a door closing with a key. A small cellar adjoining the said house, boarded below with split stakes with a shutter and a door closing with a key. Also a porch at the door of said house with the door and lock. Another house of stakes in earth, 18 feet long, 12 1/2 wide, 6 1/2 high, boarded with split stakes above, and below half of sawn beams with square joints, and the other half without boarding; with its shutters and a door closing with a key. Also a cabinet in the house, with a door and its hinges, also a postern outside the house, framed with Its lock. Also a cellar 12 1/2 feet long by 6 wide, adjoining the house, with a door and its iron work. Another inferior house of stakes in earth, 16 feet long, 12 wide, without either door or shutters, serving as a shed for cattle. Also a barn 50 feet long by 27 feet wide and 11 high, the top roofed with wood, having its tenons broken, with its "battrier" of 34 joists and partly worn out, surrounded with stakes in earth joined together. Another house 33 feet long, 21 wide, 9 high, boarded above with split stakes, surrounded with stakes in earth, neither closing with a door nor by shutters, having only four sashes of the shutters and the two side timbers of the door. Also a dove cote, raised on four wooden posts, 6 feet high, 10 square, surrounded with oak beams two inches thick, with square joints, covered with straw, the two gable ends of earth, its door and its hinges. Also an ice house 15 feet square and 6 high out of the ground and 15 feet deep in the ground, boarded with split beams, with its door closing with a key. Also a building used as a church, 35 feet long, 24 1/2 wide, 10 high, boarded entirely above, with oak joists in a good ridge, and below of beams with square joints; with its doors, windows and shutters, and sash frames between of 20 squares each, the whole closing with a key. Also a heavy bell.
OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.
I have been asked what the people in Detroit did during the period of the command of Cadillac. At first they were particularly engaged in putting up the small houses that served to shelter them from the rain and cold, and erecting the palisades that protected them from the Indians. At the end of the first year after the founding of the village, and on the 25th of September, 1702, Cadillac sent a report, covering 53 closely written pages of manuscript, descriptive of what he had done and seen around Detroit, and his plans for the future great city. His letter is very interesting and some ideas can be obtamed from it to show the occupations of his colonists. The palisades he had erected enclosed an arpent of land, making nearly 800 feet of picket line. These pickets were small trees, six or eight inches in diameter, driven three or four feet into the earth, and extending some 12 to 15 feet above the ground. There were no women at Detroit during the first year, and probably the men huddled together two or three or more in a hut, but as time went on and women began to come from Quebec and Montreal to join their husbands, each family had its own house. Wild fruit, berries and nuts, grew in great abundance, and the people gathered all they could to preserve for the coming winter. When the convoy left Montreal it had carried only sufficient food to last for three months, and food had to be procured from the Indians and from hunting, to enable the people to live until the next harvest time. They had arrived too late to grow any crops for the fall of 1701, but all hands that could be spared were set at work, preparing the soil for wheat, a quantity of which Cadillac had brought along for seed. This wheat, which he called French wheat, was sown on the 7th of October, 1701, and was cut on the 21st of the succeeding July. The land was not properly prepared, but the crop was good.
THEY TILLED THE VIRGIN SOIL.
In the spring of 1702 he attempted to raise some spring wheat, but was not as successful as with his fall sowing. In the summer of 1702 he had land prepared, and directed Tonty, his lieutenant, to have 20 arpents sowed by the 20th of September. Twelve arpents were sown with Indian corn, which came up eight feet high, and of this there was an abundant crop. Every soldier, and there were 50 of them, had a small garden of half an acre for his own cultivation, and the civilians cultivated larger tracts of land, so that in the winter of 1702, there were besides the gardens, 60 arpents of wheat. Grapes grew in abundance along the river shore, and an arpent of land was set apart, tilled, and set out with the choicest grapevines, in hopes that cultivation would improve the fruit. To use Cadillac's own words: "All this is no easy task, as everything has to be carried on the shoulders, for we have no oxen or horses yet to draw loads, nor to plough, and to accomplish it, it is necessary to be very active." The Indians were induced to gather around the fort and form settlements. Below or to the right of the fort were stationed the Hurons, and they had cultivated 200 arpents of land, probably all in Indian corn. Above the fort were the Oppenagos or Wolves (Loups). They occupied that portion of the city which was for many years known as the King's commons, and after the fire of 1805 was known, and is now known, as the governor and judges' plan. When Cadillac permitted the Oppenagos to occupy this land it was with the understanding that they should remove whenever the land was needed as a commons. A mile and a half further up the river he located four tribes of the Ottawas. The Miamis also came and asked for land and they were accommodated. A truce had been patched up between the French and Indians on one side and the Iroquois on the other, so that the Iroquois came to the settlement in numbers, but they did not remain there as the other tribes did.
FIRST WHITE WOMEN SETTLERS.
Madam Cadillac and Tonty's wife, the first white women of the west, came in the spring of 1702, and from this time on families began to come, and those men who were already at the settlement sent for their wives and children. Everything appeared very prosperous and Cadillac was in good spirits. He supposed that he owned Detroit and that the trade to be carried on with it was his, but in 1703 he learned that the company of the colony of Canada claimed the trade of the new post, and he was obliged to surrender his rights to the company. From this company he received a salary as commandant, but his interest in the prosperity of the post was gone and he gave little encouragement to people at Montreal and Quebec to settle at the new place. He made great efforts to regain his lost rights, and in 1705 he was entirely successful and the company was directed to return to him everything that he had before possessed. Now again did the people begin to flock to Detroit. More people came flow than ever before, and a greater prosperity seemed to attend the enterprise. The limits of the village inclosure were extended to permit the erection of more dwellings for the newcomers. Lots were granted to those who would build within the palisades, gardens were granted to those who would cultivate them, near the fort, and farms were staked off for others who would follow that pursuit. Every man had his occupation and there were no drones. There were farmers, artisans and soldiers. Every man was a hunter and during the hunting season one may well conceive that the village was nearly deserted and that only a sufficient number remained to protect the place from the savages. In 1706 Cadillac brought three horses and 10 head of cattle to the place. Evidently two of the horses died, for in 1711 there was only one horse, named Colin, remaining, but the cattle multiplied and at that date there were 29 animals belonging to Cadillac.
PLEASURES OF THE POST.
While the lines of caste were pretty strictly drawn to separate Cadillac and his immediate friends and companions from the soldiers and voyageurs, the latter associated on friendly and intimate terms with the Indians. The unmarried soldiers were encouraged to marry the Indian women, and a close study of the parish records of Canada incline me to believe that it was no very uncommon thing for a citizen to have left behind him a lawful wife and to have selected another in Detroit from some savage tribe. I cannot in any other way account for the disappearance of some individual at Quebec or Montreal or Batiscan or some of the eastern parishes, and the sudden and unexpected appearance of an individual of the same name, whose ancestry is the same, or is undefined, with a new wife while the eastern wife is still in the land of the living. The collecting together of all the parish records of Canada has disclosed many items of this nature. There were no law courts or judges in this city in the wilderness and Cadillac was the all powerful czar of the settlement. Always clad in military garments, with his sword clanging as it struck the ground, in his military parade through the streets of the village, all hats were off at his approach and he owed obedience to but one individual-the village priest. That sword practicing was one of the pleasures of the post is very evident from he fact that when Cadillac left Detroit there were 18 swords inventoried among his effects. I do not find the record of any musical instruments and yet dancing must have been one means of whiling away the long winter evenings. In the summer time we know that lacrosse was a favorite game with both the French and savages, and the acquaintance and friendship originating in their summer games must have been continued through the winter in something of uniform pleasure to both classes. There could be no sleigh ride parties, for there were no horses, but possibly there was coasting on the hillside near the river, and I find in Cadillac's property an account of one hundred small trumpets, probably used to stir up the enthusiasm of the young savages in their hours of amusement.
SUPPRESSION BY THE JESUITS.
The older men of both the French and Indians could gather round the open fire in the great cabins of the Indians and smoke and tell stories, but for the younger pepple a more active pleasure must be devised. It is possible that the soldiers arranged theatricals, but if they did, these were for the benefit of the French only, for it can scarcely be possible that an Indian would understand a play. In 1694 Cadillac had reported the attempt of the Jesuits to suppress the playing of Nicomede and Mithridate by the soldiers at Quebec, and the Jesuits were partly successful in their tirade. If the soldiers desired to entertain themselves in this manner at Quebec, it is not difficult to believe that they made the same attempt at Detroit, where they would not be reproached by the clergy. There was an abundance of brandy always on hand in the public storehouse, for every boat brought a quantity from below, and as early as 1706, a brewery was erected and Joseph Parent was employed at Montreal to come here as a brewer.
CADILLAC'S POWERS.
There was certainly no Acadian simplicity among the people who lived in Detroit during Cadillac's time. They were continually quarreling with each other and with the commandant, and entering protests and complaints against those in authority. Instances of this quarreling are very evident from the great number of Jesuit letters written on the subject, and some contentions are mentioned in Cadi]lac's correspondence. A clerk named Desnoyers, sent to represent the Company of the Colony, was considered by Cadillac disobedient and contumacious. Cadillac imprisoned him for two hours. Desnoyers considered himself of great importance in the settlement and resented the imprisonment as an insult. He immediately made preparations to return to Montreal, and was about to set out on his journey when he was again arrested and Imprisoned. Complaint was made against Cadillac and he defended himself to Count Pontchartrain. On being asked why he imprisoned the clerk, he replied: "I did so because it is laid down in my orders that nobody, officer or otherwise, is to set out from Detroit without my permission; yet the clerk Desnoyers, to continue his disobedience, had his boat put in the water and loaded for Montreal (as he says) without speaking of it to me or saying anything to me about it, claiming always that he was not subordinate to me." The company threatened to be even with him for thus using, or misusing, their clerk. This imprisonment, Cadillac asserts, is his great "crime." The audacity to imprison one of their servants, whom they appointed as their Principal clerk, a waif and a pour wretch, who came here not knowing which way to turn on his arrival Iii this country. As to my powers, they are very ample; being to punish according to circumstances, by censures, by reprimands, by arrests, by imprisonment, or by deprivation of civil rights; and in case of distinct disobedience, to run my sword through any one who has so offended against me. It is by reason of the remoteness that these orders have always been given to me, and on account of the seditions and intrigues which have been attempted to be formed here, which I have known quite well how to repress." There is one more subject of interest on which I desire to add a few answer the oft repeated question of "Who was the first white man at Detroit?" Not who were the first persons passing through the Detroit, but who first landed at Detroit with a determination to make that place his future home? This question would not have arisen except for statements in some of the earlier Michigan histories, which allege that Pierre Roy and Joseph Parent were located at Detroit before Cadillac came. I believe the statement has no foundation in fact, and I will try to prove its untruth. Cadillac asserts, in one of his early letters, that no one had ever visited this part of the country before. He certainly would not have made such a statement if two men were then living there, for he knew these men, as they were both members of his colony. Pierre Roy married an Indian woman. I take it for granted that he married her within a short time after first meeting her and that he brought her to the village as soon as they were married. Their first child was baptized on April 27, 1704, about three years after the village was founded. Now this evidence is only circumstantial, of course, but it is sufficient to make one believe that unless Roy came with Cadillac, he did not come at all until the year 1702 or 1703. Detroit was a sort of neutral ground, not occupied by any Indians permanently, for it was above the lands of the Iroquois and below the lands occupied by the other Indian tribes with whom the Iroquois were then at war.
JOSEPH PARENT'S RECORD.
The other man who is supposed to have been here prior to Cadillac's time, was Joseph Parent. Joseph Parent was the son of Pierre Parent, of Quebec, and was born at that place Jan. 27, 1669. Jan. 31, 1690, he married Magdeleine Marette, at Beauport. He removed to Quebec where his first child, Joseph, was born, Aug. 13, 1690. His second child, Marie Magdelelne, was born Dec. 15, 1692; the third was Jean Baptiste, born 1694, 1695 or '96; the fourth, Marguerite, born July 7, 1698; the fifth, Pierre, born about 1700; sixth, Marie Anne, born May 22, 1702; seventh, Gilbert, born Dec. 3, 1703; eighth, Joseph Marie, born Aprii 25, 1705. He then removed to Detroit, where his ninth child was born, July 21, 1709. If anything further was needed to show that he could not have lived in this country before the coming of Cadillac, we have a contract made by him on March 9, 1706, in which he agrees to go to Detroit, from Montreal, to work at his trade as master toolmaker and brewer, for three years. I have thus shown conclusively, I think, that neither Roy nor Parent lived at or near the present location of Detroit in the year 1700, or before Cadillac came, but that Cadillac is, in fact, our first man.
DIRECTORY OF DETROIT, 1701 TO 1710.
I have compiled a list of all the people who were in or about Detroit during the first nine years of Its existence from the founding of the city, in 1701, till the time that Cadillac ceased to be commandant, in 1710. This list is arranged as nearly alphabetically as the peculiarity of names will permit, and, I believe, upon the same rules that govern the compilation of directories, so that this is, in fact, a directory of the city for the nine years mentioned. The foundation of this compilation is entirely unpublished manuscripts, from which the names have been taken as they occur, and hence the spelling is sometimes improper; but where a name has occurred more than once in these manuscripts I have chosen that spelling which seems most proper. The majority of these people were unable to write or spell their names, and the commandant, priest or notary in whose writings the names occur spell them according to sound, or to his ideas of orthography. This would be a further reason for imperfection in spelling. Where a person knew how to write his or her name, it was in a mechanical manner; the signer would evidently sometimes forget what letters should form the name, and consequently would omit in some signatures letters that appear in other places written by the same party. All these things have to be contended with and an imperfect name is not an evidence of lack of earnest study to make my work complete.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
Three important series of manuscripts have been carefully examined for the purppse of ascertaining the names given herewith, and the information contained in connection with the names is taken from these three sources. The manuscripts consist of, first, the letters and reports of Cadillac. These letters are in the archives in Paris. They are very voluminous and very interesting from an historical standpoint. I have a copy of every one that has been so far discovered. Second, the records of the church of Ste. Anne, in this city. These records are peculiarly valuable, and contain many items of historical interest, besides the birth, marriage and death notices. The catholic church, so far as my observation goes, has always been very careful to keep a record of its members, their births, ancestry, marriage and deaths. The facts relative to each individual are made matters of record in their churches. Detroit Is no exception to this rule, and although we occasionally find matters in other places that show omissions and errors in the church records, they are few and only discovered on diligent study of each individual's life. There was a church building erected and a church record begun as early as 1701. The church was destroyed by fire in 1703, and the records, consisting probably of only a sheet or two of paper, were burned with the church. A new building was at once put up and a new record commenced in 1704.
WONDERFUL INDIVIDUAL RECORD.
The third series of manuscripts consists of the notarial records on file in the department of justice, in the city of Montreal. These contain lists of parties who were employed to go to Detroit with the traders, as bargemen or laborers. Many of them sought employment in this manner, simply to pay their expenses to the upper country, with the intention of remaining here if the surroundings suited them, and consequently some of the oldest French families in the city can find the names of their ancestors in these contracts. There are a great many of these contracts, and I have made copies of all such as pertain to Michigan, making several large volumes of closely-written manuscripts, between the years 1690 and 1760. These, then, form the basis from which I have worked in making this directory. When this portion of my labor was completed, I turned for confirmation and further assistance to Tanguay's Dictionnaire Genealogique of French families. Too much cannot be said in commendation of this work. The author, Fr. Cyprien Tanguay, collected the registers of all the French catholic churches of Canada and Michigan, and, with incredible patience, compiled the entire matter into a grand work of seven volumes. By means of this compilation one can trace a French catholic from the time of his leaving France until his death; can there find the names of the parents, wife and children of any of these people. In consequence of the wide scope of this work it is possible to follow the domiciles and determine the occupation of any person, no matter where he lived in Canada, or how often he changed residences. In each church where the individual's name appears in the register, sufficient data are given with it to identify him, and when these records are all brought together, as Fr. Tanguay has collected them, we have the history of every Frenchman.
DETROIT'S MISTY EARLY STORY.
We have a similar work of local importance now in process of compilation nearly completed I believe. I refer to the work of Rev. Fr. Denissen of St. Charles' church of this city. His work founded upon the same general principles as that of Fr. Tanguay, but is confined to Detroit and Windsor and vicinity. Fr. Denissen, however, has gone outside the records of the church and has taken such other authentic records as he can find, and, as he thought, adapted to his purposes. It is well known that after the termination of the French regime in 1760 and extending even as late as 1818, very many protestants were baptized in the catholic church. There was no other church here to perform this ceremony. Many of these became converts and their names are frequently found in the succeeding pages of the church record. It is, however, to the first 10 years of our city's history that we look for the ancestry of many of our older families. The men who came with Cadillac and those who came to him after his first establishment include the names of Chene, Campau, Belisle, DeLisle, Chapoton, St. Aubin and many others.
CONFUSION OF EARLY NAMES.
I confess that I do not understand how the old French names are made up. It seems to me that prior to the time that Detroit was founded, each of a family, on his attaining his majority, took to himself such a name as he saw fit-possibly taking the name from some tract of land-some seniory that he possessed and named. Thus we have, in many instances, a family of brothers each bearing different names. The use of the given name was little known and was scarcely ever employed except in official documents where the Individual was referred to as being the son of some person whose full name was given. Even as late as 1700 the use of the surname was not fully understood and it is no infrequent circumstance to find the name of a descendant entirely unlike that of his ancestor. I call to mind now, a few local names affected by the uncertainty of names, as the family of St. Aubin. The Detroit ancestor of this family was named Casse and the name St. Aubin was attached as a nickname. His children bore the same name of Casse, but as the third generation was reached, the name St. Aubin was frequently used alone and the name Casse omitted; after the lapse of 159 years the name St. Aubin is all that remains and the Casse is forgotten. Take the family of Beaubiens. Their family name was Cuilliere. The Laffertys belong to the family of Vissiere. These are only illustrations. There are many other families in Detroit that have as abruptly and unceremoniously changed their surnames and it needs the constant watch upon each name to be able to trace the families through the generatlons. Another thing about these early French people that appears odd to us is that, the women, upon marriage, did not take the name of their husbands. Wherever a woman is referred to her maiden name is given, followed by the statement that she is the wife of some person who is named and also frequently followed by the names of her parents. This peculiarity frequently assists one in tracing the identity of names otherwise obscure.
DETROIT'S FIRST DIRECTORY.
Abatis, Jean (or Labbatu, see Labatier). Aguenet (or Aguet), called Laport, Guilleaume. (Possibly the name should be Haguenot). Arnauld, Bertrand, merchant, came to Detroit July 18, 1702. Badeillac, Louis, called Laplante, made an agreement to come to Detroit May 29, 1701, the first convoy. Bannois, Jeanne. She was the first wife of Guillaume Bouche, and died in 1703. This name is given by Tanguay as Beauvais. Bariteau, Julien, called La Marche, came May 30, 1705. Baron, Denys, voyageur, came June 21, 1706. Barthe (called Belleville), Jean, a soldier, came Oct. 10, 1706. Barthe (called Belleville), Marie Charlotte, daughter of Jean Barthe, above. Born Oct. 27, 1709. Bassinet, Joseph, sieur Tourblanche. Came April 2, 1707. Bassinet, Pierre, brother of above. He came April 2, 1707. Baudreau, Gabriel. Gahriel Baudreau and his wife Catherine Foretier, were voyageurs passing through Detroit on their way to Mobile Nov. 24. 1708. Baudreau, Marie Louise, daughter of Gabriel Baudreau, baptised Nov.24, 1708. Baugret, Francois, called Dufort, came Sept 10, 1710. Beauchamp, Jacques, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Beauchamp, Pierre, brother of above. Came same time. Beaugis (or Baugis), Michel, voyageur. Beauregard. see Dupuis. Belille (or Belisle), Henry, first surgeon of the fort. Besnard, Rene, came June 21, 1706. Soldier of Carignan regiment. Bienvenue, Alexis, son of Francois, below. He married Josette Bouron, Jan. 17, 1740. Bienvenue, called Delisle, Francois, came Aug. 2, 1707. His first wife was Genevieve Laferiere, and his second wife was Marianne Lemoine. He was buried Sept. 29, 1751. aged 88 years. The transformation of French names is well illustrated by this person. His descendants are nearly universally known here by the name of Delisle or DeLisle, and the surname of two centuries ago is not uncommonly used today as a christian name, and we frequently find Bienvenue, or Welcome, Delisles in our real estate records. Bienvenue, Joseph, son of Francois Bienvenue above, baptized March 5, 1704, and buried Dec. 3 1711. Bienvenue, Marie, daughter of Francois Bienvenue above. Baptized Dec. 8, 1705. She married Jacques Roussel April 7, 1725. She is named Marianne in the marriage record. Bienvenue, Marie Joseph, daughter of Francois Bienvenue, born Aug. 25, 1709. Bienvenue, Rafael. Buried April 24, 1706, aged 2 years. Unless this is the same person as Joseph Bienvenue, above, it is scarcely possible that Rafael was a son of Francois Bienvenue. This is the first recorded death in Detroit, though there is other evidence that a child of Alphonse de Tonty died before the first church was burned, in 1703, and that Madam Bouche died in 1703. Bizaillon (or Bisaillon), Michel, son of Benoit Bisaillon and of Louise Blaye, of Clairmont, in Auvergne. He married Marguerite Fafard (dit Delorme), June 30, 1710. Bluteau, Agathe (In some places this name is spelled Bulteau), wife of Francois Judith Contant, dit Rancontre. Boilard, Jeanne, wife of Pierre Leger, dit Parisien. Bombardier (called la Bombarde), Andre. A soldier and farmer. Bombardier (called la Bombarde), Bernard Phillipe, son of Andre Bombardier above, born Oct. 12, 1709. Bombardier, Jean. Son of Andre Bornbardier above, born July 18, 1707. Bone, Marie Anne. The name probably should be spelled Beaune. She was the widow of Francois Lorry and daughter of Jean Bone and Mary Magdelaine Bourigier. She married Martin Cirier June 12, 1710. She came to Detroit April 18, 1707, under an agreement to serve Cadillac for three years at 80 livres per year. Bonne, Francois. Bonnet, Guillaume (surnamed Deliard) Armorer. A native of the parish of Charlesburg, near Quebec. He died Jan. 13, 1709. Bosne, Francois. Came April 13, 1709. Bosseron, Francois. (Tanguay spells the name Beauceron.) Farmer. He was the husband of Marie Le Page (which name see.) Botquin, Pierre (called St Andre). A soldier, came Oct.19, 1706. An inventory of goods that he carried to Detroit in 1710 includes 50 pounds of powder at 40 sols per pound, 100 pounds of bullets at 10 sols per pound, and 32 pots (of two quarts each) of brandy at 45 sols per pot. Boucher, Guillaume. His first wife was named Jeanne Beauvais, and after her death, in 1703, he married Angelique Tholme, widow of Pierre Robert, Aug.16, 1716. Boucher, Pierre. Esquire sieur de Boucherville. Bourdon, Pierre, voyageur, came June 15, 1706. Married, in 1711, Marie Anne Gouyon. Bougery, Denis, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Bourgery, Jean Louis. Brother of Denis, came Sept. 14, 1710. Bourg, Jean (called Lapierre). Voyageur, came June 15, 1706. Bourgoin (called St. Paul), Didier. Soldier of Montigny. He signs Bourguin. Boutron (called Major) Estienne. Farmer. The name Estienne shows one of the common transformations of the French words. This is now commonly written Etienne (Stephen), and the second letter 's' has been dropped, as it has in Destroit, Chesne. despot, and many other words. Boutron (called Major), Marguerite. Daughter of Etienne Boutron, above, born Sept. 15. 1709. Boutron, (called Major) Marie Angelique, daughter of Etienne Boutron, baptized July 5, 1707. Boyer, Zacharie. Voyageur, came May 20, 1705. Boyer, Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Brabant, Michel. Voyageur, came Aug. 2, 1707. Breunel, Anne (probably intended for Anne Bruneau, which see). Wife of Louis Normand. Brisset. Bernard. Came May 18. 1708. Bruneau Anne. Wife of Louis Normand dit Labrierre. Brunet, Francois dit Bourbonnais. Came May 30, 1705. Buet, Rene. Came as hargeman May 30, 1705. Butard, ?? Wife of ??. She died Dec. 10, 1724, aged 30 to 32 years. Cabazier, Charles. Voyageur, came June 13, 1707. Cadieu, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Cadillac. See De La Mothe. Caillomeau, Louis. Came Sept. 6, 1710. This name probably should be Galannaux. Camerand. See Chouet. Campau, Jacques (the name is also spelled Campo, Campos, Campeau and Campot). Blacksmith, came Sept. 3, 1708. His wife was Cecile Catin. He was buried May 14, 1751, aged 78 years. Campau, Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Campau. Jeanne. Daughter of Michel Campau. Campau Louis, son of Jacques Campau. He married Marie Louise Robert, widow of Francois Pelletier, and daughter of Pierre Robert and Angelique Tholme, Jan. 7. 1724. Campau, Marguerite, daughter of Michel Campau, baptized March 2, 1708. Campau, Marie Angelique. Daughter of Jacques Campau, born Dec. 6, 1708. Campau, Michel. Farmer, came Aug. 3, 1707. His wife was Jeanne Masse. He died before 1740. Campau, Paul Alexander. Son of Michel Campau, born Sep. 14, 1700. He married Charlotte Sioneau, daughter of Mathurin Sioneau and Marie Charlotte Dubeau, Feb. 15, 1740. Cardinal, Jacques. Voyageur, came Oct. 13, 1707. Died May 17, 1724, aged 84 years. Cardinal, Jacques. Son of the preceding, came Oct. 13, 1707. His wife was Jeanne Dugue, and third son Pierre, was baptized Aug.30, 1729. They already had a daughter Jeanne, who acted as god-mother to the infant Pierre. Jeanne married Laurent Parent. Cardinal, Marie. Wife of Jacques Hubert dit la Croix, with her husband and one child, she set out from Montreal for Detroit, May 22, 1709. Cardinal, Pierre. Came Sept. 6. 1701. Caron, Vital. Came April 2, 1707. Carriere, Antoine, (he signs the church record Hantoine Carrier, in 1710.) His parents. Andre Carriere and Cecile Jannot, lived on St. Paul street, Montreal. He first came to Detroit, April 11, 1707, as a voyageur. Casse. (called St. Aubin), Jean. This is a good illustration of the change of French names. The family name of Casse has been so completely lost through years of use of the nick name, that this man's descendants are universally known as St. Aubin, and there are many of them in Detroit today. I have grouped them all under this name. Jean Casse's wife was Marie Louise Gautier. He died Feb. 27, 1759, aged more than 100 years. Casse (called St. Aubin), Jean Baptiste. Died of smallpox Feb. 25, 1733, aged 27 or 28 years. A great many people died in the winter of 1733-4, of smallpox. Jean Baptiste St. Aubin married Magdeleine Pruneau, daughter of Jean Pruneau and Suzanne Bellanger, of Quebec, July 31, 1731. Casse (called St. Aubin), Jacques, son of Jean Casse and Marie Louise Gautier. He married Catherine Vien, daughter of Ignace Vien and Angelique Du Sable, Dec. 21, 1745. Casse (called St. Aubin), Marie Anne, daughter of Jean (or Jean Baptiste) Casse and Marie Louise Gautier. Born Oct. 5, 1710. She married Charles Chauvin (blacksmith), Oct. 27, 1726. There was another daughter, Agathe Casse, who married Nicolas Campau. dit Niagara. Casse (called St. Aubin), Pierre, son of Jean Casse. Baptized May 2, 1709. Catin, Cecile, wife of Jacques Campau. She died before 1732. Her daughter, Marianne Campau, married Joseph Bondy July 28, 1732, and her son, Claude, married Catherine Casse (dit St. Aubin), daughter of Jean Casse, Jan. 22, 1742. Catinet, Joseph, of Pointe aux Tremble, near Montreal, was in Detroit July 26, 1707. Chabot, Joseph. Channet (called Camirand), Andre, sergeant of the troops in this country. His wife was Anne Pastorel. Channet (called Camirand). Andre, son of above. Born May 13, 1708. Channet (called Camirand), Pierre, son of Andre senior. Born about Apr., 1710. Chanteloup.,Pierre, farmer. Acted as godfather to Jean Bombardier, July 18, 1707. His wife came to Detroit April 11, 1707. Charbonneau, Joseph. Came April 25, 1707. Charbonneau, Michel. Came April 17, 1707. Brother of above. Charnic. See du Charnic. Charlet, Francois. His wife was Marthe Forstier. Charlet, Pierre, son of above. Born May 3. 1709. Charon, Charles. Charpentier, Jean. Came April 2, 1707. Chauvillon, Charlotte, wife of Jean Barthe, dit Belleville. Chauvin, Gilles, voyageur. Came June 7, 1706. He and Louis Normand were in partnership. Chauvin, Jean Baptiste, voyageur. Came June 14, 1706. Chauvin, Louis, voyageur. Came June 14, 1706. Brother of above. Cheauonvouzon, Louis Antoine, surnamed Quarante Sols, chief of the Huron nation. He was a verv prominent and Influential Indian and frequent reference is made to him, both by Cadillac and by the Jesuit father's at Mackinac. He was baptized April 27, 1707, having as a godfather Cadillac himself. He died the same day, aged 48 years. Chesne, Charles, son of Pierre Chesne and Louise Batty. He married Catherine Sauvage, daughter of Jacques Sauvage and Marie Catherine Rieul, Jan. 18, 1722. Chesne, Francois, voyageur. Came Sept. 25. 1707. Chesne, Marie, daughter of Pierre Cliesne and Jeanne Bailli. She married (first) Jacques Montboef, dit Godfroy, and after his death she married Jacques Boutin, Sept. 16, 1733. There is a record that Marie Chesne died Feb. 13, 1738. From Marie Chesne have descended all the Godfroys of French extraction in and about Detroit. Chesne, Pierre. Came June 13. 1707. His wife was Jeanne Bailli, she died in 1700, she is sometimes referred to as Louise Batty. The name has been slightly changed in spelling, though not in sound, by his descendants. He was the Detroit ancestor of the present Chene family. Chesne, Pierre. Son of shove Pierre Chesne. He had two wives; first on May 25, 1728, he married Marie Magdellne Roy, a daughter of Pierre Roy; this marriage took place at Fort St. Phillipe, village of the Miamis. She died of smallpox Oct. 20, 1732, and in 1726 he married his second wife, Louise Barrois, daughter of Francois Lothenane dit Barrois; and Marianne Sauvage. Pierre Chesne was an interpreter and sometimes called La Butte. He was born about 1697. Chevalier, Jean. Came May 30, 1705. There is a record that Angelique Chevalier, daughter of the late Jean Baptiste Chevalier and the late Francoise Alavoine of this parish married Antoine Nicolas Lauzon, Feb. 27, 1769. Chevalier, Michel. Came Oct. 10, 1710. Chevalier, Paul. Came July 12. 1702. His wife was Agathe Campau. They lived on St. Paul street, Montreal. Paul, Jean and Robert were brothers. Chevalier, Pierre. Chevalier, Robert. Came June 15, 1706. Chornic, Jean Baptiste. Chouet, (called Camerand) Andre. Chouet, Louis, called Lagiroflee. Soldier in company of Cabana, captain. He was son of Jean Chouet and Marie Magdeleine Magdile. Before setting out for Detroit, May 25, 1701, he gave his property, in event of his death, to Mary Magdeleine Delisle. Cirier, Martin. Son of Nicolas Cirier and Catherine Prevoost of the parish of St. Denis d'Argenteuil at Paris. He was a soldier of the company de la Champagne and married Ann Bone, June 12, 1710. I find the name spelled Sirier sometimes, but Martin could write and he spelled it Cirier. Clairambaut, Francois, esquire sieur D'Aigremont. Commissary of the marine in Canada, sub-delegate of the Intendant and deputy appointed to visit the most advanced posts. He visited Detroit, Fort Pontchartrain, July 29, 1708. Cobtron. see Marsac. Colin, Michel, called Laliberte. Came in 1706. Collet, Pierre, voyageur. Came June 15, 1706. Compein (called L'Esperance) Bonaventure. Soldier and farmer. His wife was Catherine Laplante. Compein (called L'Esperance), Marie Catherine, daughter of Bonaventure, above. She was baptized Nov. 14, 1707. Compien (called L'Esperance) Pierre, son of Bonaventure, above. Was born Jan. 12, 1710. Cornic, Pierre. Corton, Pierre, called St. Jean. Came May 30, 1705, as bargeman. Cosset, Francois. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Couk, Marguerite, wife of Francois Masse. Marguerite Couque is referred to as the wife of the late Jean Fafare, and Marguerite Kouque, as the wife of sieur Masse. These may be the same party. Coup, Isabelle. Came to Detroit as early as April 27, 1704. Coutant, (called Rancontre) Francois Judile, a soldier. His wife was Marie Agathe Bluteau, above. Coutant, Jean. A soldier of the company of Lorimier. He was buried Sept. 17, 1732, aged 65 years. Coutant (called Rancontre), Louis. Son of Francois, above, baptized Feb. 13, 1708. Couturier, Joseph, voyageur. Came Sept. 6, 1710. Cosson, Ange. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Cusson, Charles, voyageur. Came April 20, 1709. Cusson, Jean Baptiste. Came April 11, 1707. Cusson, Joseph. Came Oct. 7, 1706. Cusson, Nicolas. Voyageur. Came Oct. 7, 1706. Dandonneau, Marie Francoise, Wife of the second marriage of Henry Belisle, surgeon. Died May 8, 1711, aged about 50 years. Dardennes, Toussainte. Came May 12, 1707. D'Argenteuil (Probably Pierre), gardener. David, Therese. Wife of Jacob de Marsac de Cobtrion dit Desrochers. She was buried Sept. 24, 1727, aged 66 years. Daze, Charles. Came July 16, 1702. De Broyeux, Francois. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. De Couague, Charles Jr. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. De Gaigne, Jacques Jr., 18 years old. Agreed to work for Jerome Merilat, dit Sansquartier for two years. De La Forest, Francois. Captain of the troops of the marine in this country. Like many other French words the letter S is frequently dropped in writing this name, so that we find it De La Foret. De La March, Dominique. Recollet priest, lecturer in theology, pastor of Ste. Anne's. De La Marque, Marianne. Wife of Alphonse de Tonty. She was the widow of Jean Baptiste Nolan, and had a daughter, Louise Suzanne Nolan, who married Charles Francois de Mezieres, esquire, sieur de Leperueinche, Dec. 17, 1725. De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine. The founder of Detroit. He was born in 1661, the son of Jean de Ia Mothe and Jeanne de Malenfant. Married Marie Therese Guyon, daughter of Denis Guyon at Quebec, June 21. 1687. In simply mentioning Antoine De La Muthe Cadillac as a citizen of Detroit, justice is not done to the name of a man who played a most important pirt in the history of America. The birthplace and the exact date of the birth of Cadillac are unknown. He was probably born in 1661, in that part of France called Gascony. He had a good education and it is not at all improbable that he studied for the priesthood. Perhaps he studied with the Jesuits, and then left their order, for he certainly displayed a thorough hatred of them through his age and came to America to seek his life. He entered the army at an early age and came to America to seek his fortune in 1683. He first settled at Port Royal (Annapolis, seaport of Nova Scotia) and built a house, which was destroyed by the English under Sir William Phips in 1690. At Port Royal he fell in with Francois Guyon, who was a privateer. In his employment with Guyon he became familiar with the coastline of America and with the details of American cities.
HE TRAVELED FAR.
One of the earliest maps of Boston, made by the noted map maker, Franquelin, bears upon its face the approval of Cadillac as to its correctness, and a report of Cadillac in 1601, warns French navigators of the dangers of Hell Gate at New York. His services as a pilot were sought after and his opinions regarding the English Atlantic settlements and the best mode of attacking them were so highly praised that the king (Louis XIV.) sent for him from America on more than one occasion. In 1687 he married Marie Therese Guyon, the niece of his employer, at Quebec. In 1688 he received a grant of a large tract of land in Maine, which was then French territory, and also the Island of Mount Desert, which his descendants again obtained in later years. His wife and family were living at Port Royal at the time of its capture by the English in 1690 and the destruction of his house left him penniless. He had been a lieutenant in the troops, and in 1693, was created a captain with the rank of ensign in the navy. Frontenac had been reappointed to his old position as governor of New France and a close friendship sprang up between himself and Cadillac that lasted during their joint lives. In 1694 he was appointed commandant of Mackinac. Here he remained four years, spending the time in looking after the Indians and quarreling with the Jesuits. He seeins to have taken great delight in bothering the Jesuit priests and exciting them with his sharp letters. His writings are voluminous, and not always truthful.
RUM VS. RELIGION.
Great attention was paid to his reports by the colonial office, but an occasional remark by the minister of foreign affairs that "He lies like a Gascon," written on the margin of a report of his, gives one clearly to understand that his sentiments were taken with a grain of allowance. One of the most important questions of discussion with the Jesuits was the sale of eau de vie (rum) to the indians. The priests alleged that it was unnecessary trafiic and injurious to the morals of the savages, while Cadillac maintained that the use of the stimulant in restricted quantities was necessary, and moreover, that if the savages did not get what they wanted at Mackinac they would go to the English to obtain it, and if they went to the English they might be converted to protestantism, and thereby their souls would be lost, and he asked the missionaries which was the most profitable thing to do. Looking to the welfare of the Indian alone, was it better to be occasionally drunk on French brandy and his soul saved or occasionally drunk on English rum and be eternally lost?
THE FOUNDER OF DETROIT.
He was not exclusively occupied with his attention to his missionary friends, but found time to explore the country and ascertain a better place than Mackinac for building a fort which would resist the encroachments of the English. He resigned his position as commandant in 1698 and went to Europe to place before the king a proposition for founding a colony on the Detroit river. His plan was approved and he returned in 1700 with authority to proceed on his errand as soon as possible. I have, before this, given a short account of his journey to Detroit and the founding of Fort Pontchartrain, which was the original and official name of this post, on the 24th of July, 1701. The unpublished accounts of what Cadillac found here are interesting in the extreme. It was the paradise of North Amenca. Here he founded a colony protected by a garrison of farmer soldiers, and his colony was a success as long as he remained, but he was removed from his command in 1710 and appointed governor of Louisiana. He reached his new post in 1713, and remained until 1717, when he returned to France. He was subsequently appointed governor of Castel Sarrazin, in France, and retained that office until his death. De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine. Ensign in the troops, son of Calillac. De La Mothe Cadillac, Antoine (or Jean Antoine), son of Cadillac. Buried in the church April 9, 1709, aged 2 years 2 1/2 months. I think this is the same as Jean Antoine, who was baptized Jan. 19, 1707. De La Mothe Cadillac, Francois. Son of Cadillac. Born March 29, 1709. De La Mothe Cadillac, Jacques. Son of Cadillac. Cadet in the troops of the detachment of marines. De La Mothe Cadillac, Marie Agatha. Daughter of Cadillac. Born, Dec. 28, 1707. De La Mothe Cadillac, Rene Louis. Son of Cadillac. Born, March 17, 1710. De Launay, Joseph. Came Sept. 27, 1710. De L'Halle, Constantin. Recollect priest, killed in 1723, his body was exhumed, transported and reburied within the church of St. Anne. De Liard, see Bouet. De Lisle, see Bienvenue. De Lorme, see Fafard. Delpeche, Francois. Came May 17, 1710. Demers, Maximilien. Came May 30, 1705. Deniau, Cherubin. Recollect priest, pastor of St. Anne's. Deniau, Rene. Died July, 1730, aged 80 years. De Paris, Denis. Depre (or Despre), Joseph. De Ranee, see La Gautier. Derruon, Pierre, esquire sieur de Budemonid. Dervisseau, Julien. Lieutenant in the troops. Desautels, Gilbert, dit Lapointe. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Des Jardins, Suzanne. Wife of Pierre La Fleur. Desloriers, Jean Baptiste. Jean Baptiste du Fournel dit Desloriers, aged 50 years, was buried Oct. 31, 1731. Desmoulins, Charlotte, dit Philis, daughter of Jacques Desmoulins, and Charlotte Sanarias, was born Nov. 22, 1709, and died Jan. 8, 1710. Desmoulins, Jacques dit Philis. His wife was Charlotte Sanarias. Desmoulins, Jacques. Son of the above Jacques Desmoulins; was baptized March 30, 1708 and died April 14, 1728. Desmoulins, Marie. Wife of Blaise Sontieureuse. Desnoyers, Joseph. Married Magdeleine Robert, daughter of Pierre Robert and Angelique Tholme. Desrocher, or Derocher, see Marsac. Desrosiers, Jean Morean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Desroziers, Joseph, called Dutremble. Came Sept. 27, 1710. Devinon, Pierre, esquire Sieur de Budemond. Lieutenant in the troops. Dizier, Michel, called Sans Quartier. Farmer. Dounay, Anthoine. Came in the summer of 1704. Dubor, Dominique. Came as voyageur, June 12, 1706. Du Chornic, Louis. Ducharme, Joseph. Came Sept. 10, 1710. Ducharme,, Louis. Voyageur, brother of Joseph. Came May 22, 1709. Duclos, Jacques. A so]dier. Dumouchel, Francoise. Daughter of Bernard Dumouchel dit Laroche. On the sixth day of July 1703 she agreed to go to Detroit to serve Mr. and Madam De La Mothe (Cadillac), for two years at 180 livres per year. Dumouchel, Paul. Came May 15, 1708. Duffant, Marie Renie. Du Figuier, (see Fournier). Dufresne, Antoine. Dufresne, Marie Magdelaine, wife of Pierre Mallet. Dumay, Jacques. Jacques Pierre Danau esquire sieur de Muy. Chevalier of the Royal and Military order of St. Louis, died May 20, 1758. Dumay, Marguerite. Wife of Andre Bombardier. Dumouche, Francoise. Dupuis, Antoine. (called Beauregard). Farmer. His wife was Marie Anne Marandeau. Dupuis, Antoine. Son of above, was horn June 21, 1707. Dupuis, Joseph. Son of Antoine Sr. above, was born Jan 31, 1709. Dupuis, Marie Anne. Daughter of Antoine above, was born March 13, 1710. Duroy, Pierre, dit Deslauriers. Soldier in the company of De La Mothe Cadillac. He came April 11, 1707. He is also mentioned as a soldier in the company of Dulhud. (Duluth). Du Vestin, Salomon Joseph. Durand (or Durant) Jean. Farmer. Dussault, Marie. Wife of Jacques Langlois. Du Sault, Marie, fille mineure. The parents' names are not given. Dutan, Jacques. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Dutremble, Joseph. Came Sept. 28, 1706. Dutremble, Jean Baptiste. Came in 1706. Du Vant, called La Franchise, Pierre. Soldier de la Compagnie de la Corne. Esteve, Pierre. Called La Jeunessse. Farmer, see Stebre. Estienne, Estienne. Brother of Dominique Estienne. Came April 26, 1707. Estienne, Jacques. Came April i3, 1707 with a canoe load of merchandise for sieur de Bourmont, ensign in the troops. Fafard, Charles, dit Delorme. He came April 25, 1707. His father was Francois Fafard, dit Delorme. The descendants from this pioneer are universally called Delorme. Fafard, Etienne dit Delorme. Son of Francois Fafard, born Sept. 24, 1708. Fafard, Francois, dit Delorme. Farmer and interpreter for the king. He died Jan. 28, 1734, aged about 80 years. His first wife was Magdeleine Marguerite Jobin and his second wife was Barbe Loisel. Fafard, Joseph. Son of Francois, above. He was born Sept. 24, 1708. He and Etienne were twins. Fafard, Magdeleine. Daughter of Francois Fafard, above. She married Prudent Robert, Jan. 7, 1711. Fafard, Marie Joseph, dit Delorme, daughter of Francois above, married Pierre Auclair, of Charlesburg. Fafard, Marie Marguerite, daughter of Francois above. Married Michel Bissilon, June 30, 1710. Fafard, Marguerite. daughter of Jean Fafard and Marguerite Couck. Married Jean Baptiste Turpin, May 5, 1710. Fanereau, Charles, voyageur. Lived in Detroit Oct. 6. 1708. Farland, Jean. Faverau, Pierre. Called La Grandeur. Fayolet, Pierre, called St. Pierre. A soldier of the company of St. Ours. He was in Detroit May 2, 1709, and acted as god-father to Pierre Casse. Ferron, Antoine, farmer, Filiatreau, Jacques, voyageur. Came May 30, 1705. He lived at Lachine and never resided in Detroit, though he came here several times. Filie, Michel, esquire, sieur de Therigo, sergeant of troops. Commissioned to bear letters from France to Cadillac. He came Oct. 16, 1706. Fortier, Catherine, wife of Gabriel Baudreau. They were married at Montreal Aug, 15, 1701. Fortier, Marthe (or Marie Marthe), wife of Francois Chalut dit Chanteloup. They were married in Montreal June 10, 1706. She was a sister of Catherine above. Fournier, Louis Rene, sieur du Figuier, ensign in the troops of this country, performing the functions of major of the troops in Fort Pontchartrain. He was born at Montreal May 14, 1673. His mother's name was Helene Du Figuier. Frapier, Marie Magdeleine, wife of Pierre Stebre, dit la Jeunesse. They were married at Quebec April 12, 1706, and she died at Detroit, Dec. 22. 1759, aged 80 years. Frigon, Francois. He was born in Normandy and came to Detroit May 30, 1705. Frotant, Angelique. Probably Proteau, which see. Gagnier, Jacques. Came May 17, 1710. Galarneau, Louise, wife of Francois Marquet. She was born Feb. 2, 1690, and married April 26, 1706. Gallien, Marie Anne. Her first husband was Jerome (Hieronymus) Marillac, dit Sansquartier, and her second husband was Bernard Phillipe. Gareau (or Garro or Garraud), Dominique. Came Oct. 3, 1708. He was born at Boucherville Jan. 13, 1684. Gareau, Jean, came Sept. 25, 1707. He was born at Boucherville Nov. 3, 1679. Gareau, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30. 1705. He was born at Boucherville May 1, 1673. He lived in St. Paul street, Montreal. He was sometimes called St. Onge, Saintonge, or Xaintonge. The three Gareaus were brothers. Dominique and Jean never resided in Detroit, but came here together in 1708 and at various other times. Pierre owned a house and lot in the village, conveyed to him by the name of Xaintonge. Gatineau, Louis, sieur Duplessis, came to Detroit June 21, 1706. He was married Jan. 22, 1710, to Jeanne Lemoyne, at Batiscan. He is described as a merchant of Quebec. Gaultier, Marie Louise, wife of Jean Casse, called St. Aubin. Gaultier (or Gautier), Pierre, dit Sagultoira. Came May 22, 1709. He was born March 25, 1669, and died July 25, 1754. Gazaille, Jean, dit St. Germain. Came Sept. 10, 1710. Germain, Alexis, son of Robert Germain, a native of the parish of Pointe aux Tremble near Quebec, and came to Detroit May 9, 1708. He was killed May 19, 1712, by a gunshot given by the Ytaganish Indians, with whom he was fighting at Detroit. Germain, Robert. Came May 18, 1708. He was a brother of Alexis. Born at Quebec Sept. 8, 1680. Gervais, Etienne de Bourguion. July 10, 1703, he agreed to go to Detroit as a hunter. Giard, Anthoine. Came May 30, 1705. He was born at Montreal Aug. 31, 1661. Giard, Gabriel. He was born at Montreal April 15, 1675, and came to Detroit as a bargeman May 30, 1705. He was married three times. Giguiere, Jean Baptiste, being about to set out for Detroit June 28, 1701, he made a present of his property in the event of his death to Louise Maignan. He returned to Montreal and married this lady Jan. 22, 1704. He died April 18, 1750. Giguiere, Robert, brother of Jean Baptiste. He was born Jan. 28, 1663, and died at Montreal Dec. 10, 1711. Girardin, Joseph. Came Aug. 26, 1708. Gode (or Gaude), Jacques. Came as voyageur Nov. 6, 1707. He was married Aug. 15, 1743, to Marie Louise St. Martin, of Detroit. Godefroy (or Godfroy), Jacques, dit Mauboeuf. Paul Chevalier and Jacques Godefroy, dit Mauboeuf, voyageurs, and Joseth Senecal, toolmaker and voyageur, formed a partnership Sept.10, 1710, to carry on the business of trading at Detroit. To this business Chevalier contributed 255 livres, Senecal 165 livres and Godefroy 43 livres and two guns. The partnership was to continue for two years, and if any of the partners died in that time another man would be taken in to fill the place. Gains and losses to be shared equally. Godfroy married Marie Anne Chesne at Detroit Nov. 20, 1730. Gognet, Francois, called Sansoucy, a soldier. Gouin, Joseph, came May 19, 1708, brining to Dufiguier, major of Fort Pontchartrain, two barrels of rum (eau de vie), one barrel of salt, two barrels of powder, a small parcel of goods and two bags of bullets in all, 400 pounds. Gouin, Louis. Came May 18, 1708. Gourion (or Gorion), Antoine, son of Jean Baptiste Gourion. Born April 26, 1708. Gourion, Jean Baptiste, sergeant in the troops at Detroit (1708), and farmer. His wife was Louise Chaudillon, though it is given as Louise Rhodillon in St. Anne's church. Gros, Jean Baptiste. Born at Montreal Dec. 22, 1672. Guillemot, Marie Chretienne. Came to Detroit in the employ of Cadillac Aug. 30, 1710. She was a daughter of Jacques Francois Guillemot and Madeleine Dupont. Was born at Montreal Sept. 29, 1695. Returned there and married Jean Jacquiers, Nov. 24, 1715, and died Nov. 23. 1734. Guillet, Paul, merchant. Born 1690. Died in Montreal June 7, 1753. His full name seems to have been Paul Alexander Guillet. He acted as godfather to Paul Alexander Campau Sept. 14, 1709, and the infant appears to have been named after him. He came to Detroit May 19, 1708. Gustineau, Louis. Guyon, Jean, dit Lachapelle. Came Sept. 6, 1710. Guyon, Marie Therese, wife of Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac. Born at Quebec April 9, 1671. Married June 21, 1687. (The first woman in Detroit). Hamelin, Rene, voyageur. Came May 18, 1710. Hemart (or Haimart), Marie Louise. Born Dec. 1, 1709. Daughter of Pierre Haimart. Hemart (or Haimart), Pierre, farmer and soldier in the company of Mr. Lorimier. Married Marie Laland June 12, 1706. The records of St. Anne contain a certificate of baptism, Oct. 20, 1707, of Francois Delainart, son of Pierre Delainart and Marie Filiastreau. Fr. Tanguay concludes that Hemart and Delainart are the same. Henaux, Pierre, Sr., came to Detroit Sept. 27, 1708. Perhaps the name should be Hunault. Henaux, Pierre, Jr. Came Sept. 27, 1708. Hubert, Ignace, called Lacroix. Came April 20, 1709. He was a son of Ignace Hubert, of Boucherville. Hubert, Jacques, dit Lacroix, Sr. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Hubert, Jacques, dit Lacroix. Came in 1706. He was born May 12, 1684, and married Sept. 5, 1705. to Marie Cardinal. He was a son of Jacques Hubert, of Montreal. Hubert, Louis, voyageur. Came Nov 6. 1707. He was a brother of Ignace, above. Hubert, Pierre. son of Jacques Hubert. di Ia Croix. and Marie Cardinal. Was horn at Detroit Dec. 11. 1709, and died Oct. 11. 1724. The family Is generally known b-v the name of Lacroix. Hubert, Pierre, voyageur. Came Aug. 11, 1710. He was a brother of Jacques Hubert, above, and married Francoise Cardinal. Huet, Pierre, called Duluth. Came April 2. 1707. He was a son of Joseph Huet, born Nov. 12, 1682. Janot, Pierre. Came May 22, 1709. Nephew of Robert Janot. Janot, Robert (called La Chapelle). Came April 2, 1707. He was uncle to Joseph Bazinet, dit Tourblanche. Jardis, Francois, called Rencontre. Farmer and lot owner in the village. Jean, Raymond, dit Godon. Contracted Oct. 12, 1703, to go to Detroit as a farmer. Jobin, Marie Magdeleine. Wife of Francois Fafart, dit Delorme, interpreter. She died at Detroit, Jan. 29. 1711, aged about 40 years. Joly, Jean, surnamed Jolycoeur, sergeant in the troops. He was a native of the parish of Bury, diocese of Xaintes. Died at Detroit, Mich., March 20, 1707, and buried in the cemetery of Fort Pontchartrain. Juillet, Jean, called Laplante. Came to Detroit as a bargeman May 30, 1705. Labatier (or Abatis) Jean. Owned a lot in the village. Jean Labattu, Cochant, dit Champagne, a soldier. Died in Detroit, Feb. 15, 1712, I think this is the same person. Laberge, Guillaume. Entered into an agreement Oct. 12, 1703 to come to Detroit as a farmer. Labrierre. see Normand. La Ferriere, Genevieve. wife of Francois Bienvenue, dit Delisle. Born Dec. 8. 1679. She died before 1709. Her family name was Charon. Lafleur. see Poirier. Laforte. see Levoir. La Forest, Marguerite, wife of Antoine Levroir. She was born in 1689 and married Antoine Terou Laferte (Levroir) June 10, 1706. La Grandeur. see Faverau. La Jeunesse. see Stebre. La Jeunesse, Etienne, came in 1706. Lalande, Marie, wife of Pierre Hemart. Laloire, ??, farmer. There is nothing from which the first name can be determined. Tanguay gives the name Allaire as the same surname as this. Lamareux, Francois, sieur de St. Germain. Came April 2, 1707. Francois Lamoureux, dit St. Germain, a merchant, was born 1675 and died Dec. 30, 1740. La Marque, Pierre, called Sans Soucy. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He lived at Laprairie, and his wife was Magdeleine Delisle. La Montague, called Pierre Mouet. La Mothe, Magdalaine, Cadillac's daughter. La Mothe, Marie Therese, daughter of Cadillac, baptized Feb. 2, 1704. Lamy, Joseph. Set out from Montreal Sept. 6. 1708, to conduct Madam Ranez to Detroit. Lamy drifted farther west to Kaskaskia, where he became one of the trustees of the church in 1717, and was killed by the Indians in 1725. Lanarias, Charlotte, probably Sanarias, which see. Langlois, Antoine, son of Jacques Langlois. Born Nov. 13, 1709, buried July 26, 1710, at Detroit, aged about 8 1/2 months. Langlois, Jacques, farmer and blacksmith. Born in 1676, he married Marie Dussault. He resided for a time in Detroit, but returned to Montreal, and died there Jan. 30, 1733. Langlois, Paul, farmer. Came April 11, 1707. Laplante, Catherine. Wife of Bonaventure Compien dit L'Esperance. Her name, according to the record of baptisms in Sorel, where she was born, was Marie Catherine Badaillac, dit Laplante, and she was married at Montreal, June 10, 1716. Laporte, see Aguenet. Laprairie, Julien. Came Aug. 19, 1710. Larivee, Jean. Came May 19, 1708. He was born Aug. 12, 1667, and died Sept. 9, 1729. L'arramee-Tanguay mentions a man by this name, his first name being unknown, who died in Montreal, Sept. 23, 1736. La Salle, Jean. A soldier of the company of Duluth, native of Peyrourade in Bearn, died Jan. 24, 1707. His body was buried in the church of the Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit. Laude, Joseph, dit Mata. Agreed to go to Detroit as farmer, Oct. 12, 1703. La Vallee, Jean Baptiste. Soldier of the company of the Cassagne, native of Quintin, bishoprick of St. Brieux, in Brittany. Died Nov. 19, 1711, aged about 30 years. Lavois, Jacques, dit St. Amour. Came as bargeman. May 30, 1705. He was a soldier of the company of La Corne, and married Marie Barbe Cesar, at Montreal, Nov, 28, 1711. Leboeuf, Pierre. Came as bargeman. May 30, 1705. His wife was Marie Francoise Auzon. He never came here to reside permanently, but some of his children did. Le Coutant, dit Rencontre, Magdelaine, daughter of Francois Judit Le Coutant, dit Rencontre, born Feb. 5, 1710. L'Ecuyer, Pierre. Leduc, Jean Baptiste, son of Jean Leduc of Montreal. Came Oct. 11. 1710. He was born in 1684, and married Marie Catherine Descary. Lefebvre, Louis. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. His father was Jean Baptist Lafebvre, of Montreal. Lefebvre, Nicholas. Came May 22, 1709. Voyageur. (His father, Jean Baptiste Lefebvre, lived on St. Peter's river.) Legautier, Francois, sieur de la Vallee Ranee (see Deranee). Lieutenant in the detachment of marines in Canada. Came Oct. 2, 1709, died Nov. 12. 1710. Lager, Bourgery. Came April 2, 1707. Leger, called Parisien. Marie Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Lager, baptized Dec. 15, 1707. Lager (dit Parisien), Marie Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Leger, dit Parisien. Born Aug. 9. 1709. These two children of the same parents bear the same name. There is no record or the death of either. Lager (called Parisien), Pierre, farmer. His wife was Jeanne Boilard, to whom he was married at Quebec, May 15, 1706. Legros, Jean, called Laviolette, born Dec. 22, 1673. He married Marie Buet, Nov. 24, 1700. He came to Detroit Sept. 6, 1708. Legros, Nicolas. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was an elder brother of Jean and married Marie Charlotte Turpin. Le Maire, Charles, dit St. Gerinain, voyageur. Came Oct. 17, 1707, with a canoe of merchandise for the Recollet fathers. He was a captain of militia in Lachine. Born 1676, died 1751. Le May, Michel. Agreed April 25, 1704, to come to Detroit as a brigadier (foreman of a boat's crew). Le Mire, Jean, de Marsolet. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. His mother's name was Louise Marsolet. La Moyne, Alexis, sieur de Moniere. Came before Oct. 2, 1709. La Moine, Jacques, merchant. Came June 21, 1706. Le Moine, Rene, merchant. La Moyne, Marie, wife of Francois Bienvenue, dit Delisle, married in 1708. He had another (first) wife, Genevieve Laferiere. Marie La Moyne, aged about 70 years, was buried Sept. 6. 1764. La Moyne, Rene (or Rene Alexander), Came Oct. 12, 1706. Born in 1668, he married Marie Renee La Boulanger, Feb. 2, 1712. La Page, Marie. Born in Montreal, 1684, she married June 12, 1706, at Montreal, Francois Beauceron. The date of his death is not given, but it was before 1709, for she is mentioned at that time as a widow. She is the only woman to whom any land was conveyed by Cadillac, within the palisades. Her husband was living at this time (1707), but she was probably separated from him, as he is not mentioned. She must have subsequently married Josenh Vaudry, for they are called legal husband and wife in 1720, and had a child, Mary Magdeleine. It is with the name of Marie Lapage that the first great social scandal of Detroit is connected. The pages of St. Anne's record with glaring plainness the false step of this unfortunate woman. It is impossible to tell, now, the penance that she performed in atonement for her wrong-doing. The church record, possibly, operated to deter others from following in her path. Whether the man lost prestige or not is unknown, but we do know that he left Detroit about the time this affair became public, and returned to Montrea, where he was appointed the trusted agent and attorney for Cadillac, and retained that position as long as Cadillac remained at Detroit. Le Page, Marie Therese, daughter of Marie Le Page, widow of the late Bausseron and of sieur Grandmenil, commis du Magazin. Born July 24, 1709. This is the first record of an illegitimate child. It is not profitable to trace the descent of this unfortunate. Lescuyer, Anthoine, came May 28, 1708. He was born in Montreal May 28. 1688. Lescuyer, Jean and Paul. Brothers. Came May 29, 1706. They, with Jacques Minuille, brought 10 cattle and 3 horses from Fort Frontenac to Detroit, for Cadillac. They were sons of Pierre Lescuyer, born in Montreal June 16, 1681, and Feb. 15, 1676, respectively. Lescuyer, Pierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He was a brother of the three preceding persons. Born in Mcntreal Feb. 9, 1674. Lesieur, Jean Baptiste, dit Callot. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. L'Esperance, see Compien. L'Espine, Marie Magdelaine wife of Joseph Parent. She was the daughter of Jacques Marette, dit L'Espine. L'Esquier, Pierre, voyageur. La Tendre, Adele Genevieve, probably came to Detroit with Mme. La Mothe Cadillac's wife, as she was god-mother to his daughter, Marie Therese, in 1704. Leveille, Laurent, came June 15, riO6. He was a Panis Indian. Lavroir, called Laferte, Antoine. The name should be Antoine Theroux. He was born in 1677 and died Feb. 22, 1759. Levroir, Pierre, son of Antoine Levroir, above, baptized Feb. 22, 1707. He married Rose Poitevin in 1733. L'Isle, see Bienvenue. Livernois, Francis. Francois Benoit, dit Livernois, came to Detroit, April 2, 1707. He married Angelique Chagnon in 1710. The name Livernois is quite common in Detroit now. Loisel, Barbe, wife of Francois Legautier, Esq., sieur de Lavallee Ranee, lieutenant. Set out to go to her said husband at Detroit, Sept. 6, 1708. She was married three times. First to Pierre Roussel, then to Legautier, and, in 1713, to Francois Fafard, dit Delorme. Loranger, Joseph, dit Rivard, dit La Jauge. see Rivard. Loranger, Nicholas, dit Rivard, voyageur, see Rivard. Lubert, Jacques. Magdeleyne, Jean Baptiste, dit Ladouceur, came in 1706. He was born in Montreal in 1681 and married Elizabeth Millet. Magnant, Antoine, dit L'Esperance. He lived within the palisades and owned a lot there, but he is described in Ste. Anne's records as a citizen of Montreal (1708), a voyageur at present at Fort Pontchartrain. He was born Sept. 24, 1682, at Laprairie. Magnan, Gaspard. dit Champagne, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He married Magdeleine Marsille, Feb. 9, 1699. Maionee, Marguerite. Maisme, Marie. Major, see Boutran. Malet, Antoine, son of Pierre Malet. Baptized Aug. 16, 1706. He married Therese Mailhot, Aug. 11, 1730. Mallet, Francois, son of Pierre Mallet, born July 28, 1708. Mallet, Pierre, farmer, voyageur, citizen of Detroit. His wife was Magdelelne Dufresne, widow of Francois Pelletier. Mallet, Rene, voyageur, came Nov. 6, 1707. Apparently he was the father of Pierre Mallet, and died at Montreal, Oct. 24, 1716. Marces, Francois, a soldier. Marcil, Andre, came May 17, 1710. Marendeau, Marianne (or Maranda) wife of Antoine Dupuis, dit Beauregsrd. They were married at Montreal, June 9, 1706, and she returned and died there Jan. 8, 1730. Marquet, Francois. His wife was Louise Galerneau, and they were married April 26, 1706, at Quebec. They left Detroit some time before Cadillac did, and their third child, Pierre, was born in Montreal in 1710. Marquet, Joseph, son of Francois Marquet, born May 22, 1707. Marquet, Marguerite, daughter of Francois Marquet, born March 20, 1709. De Marsac de Cobtrou, Francois, son of Jacob de Marsac. Baptized Oct. 22, 1706. He married Therese Cecile Campau in 1734, and one of their daughters, Marie Louise, became the wife of Robert Navarre in 1762. De Marsac de Cottrion, Jacques, son of Jacob de Marsac. Born Nov. 7, 1707, died Dec. 24, 1745, aged about 40 years. The priest guessed at his age, but the record shows that he was 38 years of age. De Marsac de Cottrion, Jacob, sieur Desrochers, sergeant in a company in the detachment of marines. His wife was Therese David. He was buried April 27, 1747, aged 80 years. Their son Jacques married Marie Anne Chapoton, daughter of Jean Chapoton, surgeon, Jan. 25, 1745. Marsac, Jerome. Marsille, Andre. Martiat, Jerome, dit Sansquartier (or Sanscartier), son of Maurice Martiac and Jeanne Damiot, of the parish of Chaubouline, bishopric of Brines in Limozin. Died June 10, 1709. He was a soldier of Detroit. His wife was Marie Anne Gallien. His name is sometimes spelled Marillac. Martiac, Magdeliene, daughter of Hierosmes Martiac (called Sansquartier). Baptized Jan. 22, 1707. Martiac (called Sans Quartier), Pierre Jerome, son of Jerome Martiac dit Sans Quartier. Baptized March 28, 1709. Martin Claude, came June 15, 1706. Masse, Francois, farmer. His wife was Marguerite Couk, called Lafleur. They were married in 1702. She had been the widow of Jean Fafard. Masse, Jeanne, became the wife of Michel Campau in 1696. She had a daughter Marie Anne Campau, who became the wife of Pierre Belleperche. Masse, Michel. He lived in Montreal but visited Detroit. Maurisseau, Jacques, voyageur. Came June 15, 1706. Maurivan, Jacques. Came 1706. Maurivan, Louis. Came 1706. Melain, Marie, wife of Blaise Fondurose, a soldier. She was born in 1689, married June 9, 1706, lived in Detroit several years, but returned to Montreal and died there April 26, 1713. Merssan, Jean, dit Lapierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He is mentioned as a Marguillier, or church trustee, probably of Quebec, by Tanguay. He was born in 1685 and died April 16, 1718. Michel, Jean, agreed to go to Detroit as farmer, Oct. 12, 1703. He probably lived at St. Francois du Lac. Mikitchia, Joseph. Slave belonging to Michel Bezailin: Teste Plate (flat head). Baptized, March 10, 1710, 16 years old. Milhet, (or Millet), Nicolas, came March 3, 1709. Jan. 4, 1712, he married Louise Cardinal. Minville (or Miville), Jacques. Came May 29, 1706. He, with Paul and Jean Lascuyer brought 10 cattle and 3 horses from Fort Frontenac to Detroit, for Cadillac. His wife was Catherine Lescuyer, of Montreal. Moitie, Marie, wife of Pierre Chesne, according to Tanguay, married Oct. 9, 1700, at Montreal. She was widow of Jean Maguan, and died Dec. 31, 1727. Monet, Pierre, see La Montagne. Monjeau, Gabriel, voyageur. Came April 23, 1710. He was born in 1690 and died April 27, 1718. He did not stop long in Detroit. Monteil, Rene, dit Sansremission. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He did not remain long in Detroit. He died at St. Ours, March 4, 1724. Montfort, ??, soldier of the company of Desgly; found dead in the woods at the foot of a tree, buried Dec. 21, 1709. I cannot find the first name of this soldier. Morand, Pierre. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. He died at Batiscan, June 11, 1729. Moreau, Joseph. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. His home was at Batiscan. Morin, Moise, dit Chesnevert. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was a sergeant in the company of Beaucour. Born in Poitiers, Poitou. He married Magdeleine Monin, Nov. 26, 1707, and made his home at Quebec. Morisseau, Louis. Came June 15, 1706. Morisseau, Pierre. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Normand, Angelique, daughter of Louis Normand, dit Labriere. Born June 20, 1707. She was married three times; to Jean De Launay, to Jacques Beda, and to Jacques Hermier. Normand, Louis, dit Labriere, tool maker. Came June 7, 1706, to work at his trade. He was born at Quebec, Oct. 13, 1680. Married Anne Bruneau, May 29, 1701, and died July 15, 1729. Normand (called La Briere), Marie Therese, daughter of Louis Normand, dit La Briere, born at Detroit, Sept. 1, 1705. Ouabankikow, Marguerite, an Indian of the Miami tribe, the wife of Pierre Roy. There is no record of her marriage, though the priest called her a legal wife. She died of smallpox, Oct.31, 1732. She had six children, baptized in the church at Detroit. Pachot, Jean Marie Daniel. He was born July 30, 1694, and was the son of Francois Vienay Pachot and Charlotte Francoise Juchereau. After his father's death, his mother married Francois de la Forest, a lieutenant under Cadillac, and afterwards commandant at Detroit. Paquet, Jean. He was born in 1682, and Feb. 20, 1708, married Marie Charland. Parent, Joseph, farmer, master toolmaker and brewer. His wife was Magdeleine Marette, whom he married at Beauport, Jan. 31, 1690. On the 9th of March, 1706, he agreed with Cadillac to go to Detroit to work at his trade for three years. Parent, Marie, daughter of Joseph Parent and Magdeleine Marette, dit Lespine, haptized Jan. 21, 1709. Parent, Marie Madelaine, daughter of Joseph, above, born at Beauport, Dec. 15, 1692, and came with her parents to Detroit between the years 1706 and 1709. Parent, Marguerite, daughter of Joseph, above, born at Montreal, July 7, 1698. Parisien (see Leger). Pastorelle, Anne, wife of Andre Channet, dit Camiraud. He was her second husband. Her first husband was Jean Moriceau. Patenostre, Jean, of St. Lambert, came Sept. 6, 1710. Pepin, Jean, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Perrin, Mathieu, dit Garaho (or Garaut), came Oct. 2. 1709. He was taken prisoner by the Iroquois while taking goods to Fort Frontenac in 1688. The next year Jeanne Pilet was also taken prisoner by the Iroquois. They met as prisoners, and forming an attachment for each other, were married by Fr. Miller, Jesuit, who was also a captive of the Iroquois at that time. Petit, Marie, wife of Pierre Poirier, dit Lafleur. Tanguay gives the name as Marie Clemence Maupetit. Philippes, dit Belhumeur, Bernard, sergeant in the troops of the department of marines. He married Anne Gallien, widow of Jerome Marillac. They had both lived in Detroit, but were married in Montreal, March 18, 1712. Picard, Alexis. Came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Brother of Francois, mentioned below. He was born in 1681, and died at Montreal, April 22, 1745. Picard, Francois. Came as voyageur, May 30, 1705. His wife was Anne Farreau. He died at Detroit, Oct. 7, 1728. Pichet, Pierre. He was born in 1674, married Marie Ann Sylvester at Pointe aux Trembles in 1697 and died Aug. 12, 1712, at Cap Sante. Pineau, Thomas, dit Bundemour, sergeant in troops of the marine. He was stationed in Detroit in 1709. THE VILLAGE DIRECTORY. The following is the concluding installment of the directory of Cadillac's village: Pinet, Yves, gunsmith, came to Detroit, March 9, 1706, to work at his trade for three years. Plante, Zacharie. Poirier (called La Fleur), Angelique, daughter of Pierre Poirier, dit Lafleur. Born March 10, 1709. Poirier, Pierre Rene, dit Lafieur, farmer and soldier. He married Marie Clemence Maupetit, June 12, 1707. Her name is given in Ste. Anne's records as Marie Petit. Pothier, Toussaint, dit La Verdure, voyageur. Came Sept. 22, 1707. He lived in Montreal, was born in 1675 and married Marguerite Thunay. Primo, Jean, dit La ??. Came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. The record from which this name is taken has been partly destroyed by time and a portion of the name obliterated. Proteau, Angelique, wife of Etienne Boutron, dit Major. After the death of Boutron she married Pierre Germain and died in 1754. Quarante Sols, or Quarant Sous see Cheanouvouzon. Quesnel, Jacques and Jean, brothers, voyageurs, came May 18, 1710. They were sons of Oliver Quesnel. Jean was born at Montreal and Jacques at Lachine. They lived at Lachine. Quilenchive. I cannot make out this name. I think it to be an Indian name, though I may be as sadly mistaken as I was with the name of Xaintonge. Rabillard, Nicolas. Came Sept. 27, 1706. Reaume, Charles, voyageur, came Sept. 28, 1710. The only person I can find bearing this name was a son of Rene Reaume, born April 17, 1688, at Charlesbourg. Renaud, Charles, esquire, sieur Dubuisson, lieutenant of a company, and commandant at Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit, in the absence of M. de Laforest. When Cadillac left Detroit, Laforest agreed to take his place here at once, but was taken sick and Dubuisson was sent here temporarily to hold it until Laforest's recovery. Renaud, Louis, dit Duval, came June 16, 1706. Antoine Renaud married Francoise Duval. The records do not contain the name of Louis as one of their children, but because he was called Duval, I conclude he was a child of this marriage. Rencontre, or Rancontre, see Jardis. Reneau, Laurent, voyageur, came May 23, 1710. He married Anne Guyon at St Augustin in 1695, and after 1698 he ]ived at Montreal. Rhodillon, Louise, wife of Jean Baptiste Gouriou. This name should be Chaudillon. She was born Jan. 11, 1682, at Sorel, and married Gouriou June 22, 1701. Richard, Claude, came April 2, 1707. The only Claude Richard I find was a son of Guillaume Richard, born Jan, 30, 1684. I find no record of his marriage or death. Richard, Jean, farmer and interpreter for the king. His wife was Marie Ann Ladecouverte (or Yon). Being dangerously wounded July 7, 1708, he states that he left with his sister, Mme. Duplessis, 720 livres, for which he holds her note, now in the hands of his cousin, Jacques Langlois, and he wishes the sum paid to Pierre Roy. He did not die, however, until several years later. Rivard, Claude, sieur de Lorange. Agreed with the company of the colony of Canada, represented by Francoise Dumontier, of Montreal, and Etienne Volland de Radisson, of Detroit, to go to Detroit, July 10, 1703, as an interpreter. Rivard, Francois, dit Montendre, came May 19, 1708. Rivard, Robert, came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Rivard, Joseph, dit Montendre, came May 18, 1708. Rivard, Mathurin, came May 18, 1708. Rivard, Nicolas, born in 1686. He married Marie Joseph Raux in 1724, and died in 1729. Rivard, Pierre, dit Lanouette, voyageur, came Sept. 6, 1710. He was born in 1686 and married Marie Anne Caillia, June 9, 1721. Rivard, Robert, came May 18, 1708. Robert, Joseph, Mathurin, Claude and Francois were sons of Robert Rivard, of Batiscan. Robert, Francois, came in 1706. He was born in 1678, married Marie Lanctot in 1712 and died in 1756. Robert, Joseph, born in 1674, married in 1701, and died in 1748. He and Francois and Pierre were brothers, He came to Detroit May 12, 1707. Robert, Pierre, dit Lafontaine. He movedto Detroit May 19, 1708, with his wife and children. He had been there before, having come June 15, 1706, in charge of a canoe of merchandise. His wife was Angelique Ptolomee (or Tholme). After he died his widow married Guillaume Bouche, Aug. 16, 1716. At the marriage of his son Antoine in 1743, this Pierre Robert is referred to as "the late Antoine Robert." The son married Marie Louise Becmond. Robert, Prudent, came Aug. 12, 1710. He was another brother of Pierre Robert, all being sons of Louis Robert. His wife, whom he married at Detroit, Jan. 7, 1711, was Magdeleine Fafard, dit Delorme. Rose, Nicolas, soldier. He was born in 1674 and died in 1746. His wife was Marie Anne Prudhomme. Roy, Edmond, dit Chatellereau, agreed to come to Detroit July 28, 1704, as brigadier (foreman of a boat's crew). He was to receive 300 livres for the trip. While he never resided in Detroit, his son Joseph did, and was married here in 1736 to Magdeleine Perthuis. Roy, Louis, came as bargeman May 30, 1705. He was born in 1659 and died before 1713. Roy, Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Roy. Baptized April 27, 1704. Roy, Marie Louise, daughter of Pierre Roy. She was baptized May 19, 1708, married Alexis De Ruisseau, and died in childbirth, Dec. 3, 1735, aged about 31 years. Roy, Marie Magdeleine, daughter of Pierre Roy, born May 25, 1710. She married Pierre Chesne dit La Butte, and died Oct, 20, 1732, aged 22 years. Roy, Pierre. It has been stated that this was the first man at Detroit and that he lived with the Indians in this neighborhood before Cadillac came. His wife was Marguerite Ouabankikoue, a Miami Indian. Roy, Pierre, son of Pierre Roy. Baptized April 21, 1706. Roze, Francois and Nicholas, brothers. Came April 13, 1709. They were sons of Noel Rose and born at Quebec. The name should be Rose. Ruiet, Jean, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Ruiet, Rene, came as bargeman May 30, 1705. St. Aubin, Jean, corporal in the garrison. Came to Detroit with Pierre Duroy, April 11, 1707. See Casse. St. Marie, Francois Marie, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. St. Yves, Joseph, came Aug. 11, 1710 (engage). He was born in 1692 and consequently only 18 years of age. The family name was St. Ange, dit Hogue. St. Yves, Pierre, voyageur. Came April 18. 1710. Elder brother of the preceding. He was born in 1682. Salomon. I think this name is a mistake, though it occurs in one of Cadillac's conveyances. I think he intended Salomon Joseph Du Vestin. Sanaria, Charlotte, wife of Jacques Desmoulins dit Philis. She was born in 1679 and died May 5, 1744 at Detroit. Sansquartier, see Martiac. Sarrazin, Joseph, came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Son of Nicholas Sarrazin, born Feb, 24, 1681. Sarrazin, Nicholas, brother of above, born Jan, 12, 1686. Sarrazin, Pierre, came as bargeman, May 30, 1705. Another brother of above, born Feb. 26, 1684. Senecal, Adrien, came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Senecal, Joseph, came Sept. 10, 1710. He was born in 1674 and died Feb. 28, 1738. His wife was Louise Bareau, or Barros. Serond (called L'Eveille), Jean. Simon, Gilbert, or Simon Sanspeur, dit Gilbert, sergeant in the troops. His wife was Marguerite La Page. She died July 20, 1730, at Detroit. Simon (probably Pierre), came May 18, 1708. The first name of this paty has been destroyed in the notarial record, but his residence is given as Pointe aux Tremble, and the only Simon living at that place at this time was Pierre. Sirier, Martin, see Cirier. Slave (Panis) Jacques. A little slave of Pierre Roy, aged 7 or 8 years. Slave. The first mention of negroes is two of Louis Campau's in 1736. Slave (Panisse), Marie Jeanne, belonging to Jean Richard, voyageur, aged about 15 years. Slave, (Panis, Indian), belonging to Mr. Moynier, aged 12 to 14 years, died Nov. 18, 1710. Slave (Panis, Indian), Joseph, called Escabia. Belonging to Joseph Parent, aged 21 or 22 years. He died Jan. 21, 1710. Sontienreuse, Blaise, lately employed as a soldier in the company of De La Mothe, (1707). Tanguay says his name should be Fondurose. Sontieureuse, Marie, daughter of Blaise Sontieureuse. Born May 14, 1707. Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, Agathe, daughter of Pierre Stebre, dit La Jeunesse. Born Feb. 14, 1710, died Feb. 21, 1710. Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, ??, daughter of Joseph Nicolas Stebre. Born Jan. 12, 1711. The priest has omitted to give the first name of the infant. On Jan. 19, 1733, they buried Angelique Esteve, wife of Pierre Belleperche, aged about 21 years. She died of smallpox. This may be the one born Jan. 12, 1711. Stebre, called La Jeunesse, Pierre, late a soldier. Died July 18, 1736. His wife was Marie Magdeleine Frappier. She died Dec. 22, 1759, aged 80 years. He was at Montreal Aug. 27, 1787. He had a daughter Marguerite, who married Jean Chapoton, surgeon of the fort, July 18, 1720. She died July 7, 1753, aged 45 years. The name is sometimes given us as Esteve, and Steve, but the descendants are now usually called La Jeunesse. Stebre, dit La Jeunesse, Pierre, son of Pierre Stebre. Born May 1 1708. Married (as Steve) Marie Desforges, widow of Francois Picard, Oct. 24, 1729. Died March 24, 1731. Surgere, Blaise, farmer. I find frequent mention of this name, but cannot identify its possessor, unless it is the same as Sontleureuse, above. Susart, called Delorme, Francois. (probably an error on the part of the priest in writing the name of Fafard), dit Delorme. Tabaux, Jacques. Came as bargeman, May 20, 1705. Tabaux, Jean. Jr. Came May 15, 1708. He married Angelique Brunet in 1710 and died at Montreal in 1728. Tacet, Pierre. Tesee, Francois. Tessier, Paul. He was a resident of Montreal. Came to Detroit in 1708, and was here again in 1710, when he witnessed the marriage of Martin Cirier and Marie Anne Bone. Tessler, Antoine, farmer. Tetreau, Jean Bantiste, Joseph, and Laurent, brothers. Came April 21, 1707. Tholme, Angelique, wife of Pierre Robert. This name is given as Angelique Dalonne, and in some places as Ptolme, by Tanguay. She was buried in 1744, aged about 65 years. She married Guillaume Bouche, after the death of Robert. Tichenet, Pierre. Tonty, Alphonse, captain of a company, aged 68 years. Buried Nov. 10. 1727. His first wife was Anne Picote. She and Cadillac's wife were the first women in Detroit. She died in 1714, and in 1717 he married Marianne Delamaroue, widow of Jean Baptiste Nolan. Tonty was an Italian, and frequent references are made to the Italian schemer. Tousignan, Michel, dit Lepointe. Came Sept. 6, 1710. He was the son of Pierre Tousignan, and married Marie Catherine Lemay. Trottier, Alexis. Came May 18, 1708. Son of Antoine Trottier and brother of Paul, below. He married Marie Louise Roy at Detroit, Jan. 6, 1735, and after her death married Catherine Godfroy. Trottier, Gabriel, dit St. Jean. Came as bargeman May 30, 1705. Trottier, Joseph, dit Desruisseaux. Came on Oct. 17, 1708. He was a brother of Michel, and born in 1668. His wife was Francoise Cuillerier. Trottier, Michel, sieur de Beaubien. Came May 18, 1708. He was born in 1675 and married Agnes Godfroy in 1700. Trottier, Paul (brother of Joseph). Came Oct. 17, 1708. Truteau, Jean Baptiste, married Magdeleine Parant Sept. 1, 1715, and died in 1754. Truteau, Joseph, carpenter, brother of Jean Baptiste. They came together April 2, 1707. Josenh died at Montreal in 1745. Tuffe, called du Fresne, Antoine. The only person I can find bearing this name was born in Montreal Aug. 21, 1677. Tune, Magdeleine, wife of Pierre Malet. This name should be Du Fresne. She was born in 1669 and married Francois Pelletier. After his death she married Pierre Malet or Maillet. Turpin, Jean Baptiste, son of Alexander Turpin and Charlotte Beauvais, of Montreal. Married Marguerite Fafard. daughter of the late Jean Fafard and Marguerite Conique, of this parish and new colony, May 5, 1710. Turpin, Jean Baptiste, voyageur. Came Oct. 2, 1709. Turpin, Jean Baptiste, son of Jean Baptiste Turpin. Born Dec. 14, 1710. Vaudry, Etienne, voyageur. Came Aug. 2, 1707. Born at Three Rivers, Oct. 27. 1685. Vaudry, Jacoues. Came as bargeman, May 30. 1705. Born in 1670, and died in 1743. Vaudry, Joseph. Came Aug. 19, 1710. He was born in 1687, and married Marguerite Lepage, widow of Simon Gilbert. Etienne, Jacques and Joseph were brothers and sons of Jacques Vaudry and Jeanne Renault. Veron, Etienne, de Grandmeuil. Appointed attorney in fact for Cadillac, July 26. 1709. His name has been mentioned above. He was born in 1649, married Marie Moral, dit Montendre, and died at Three Rivers May 18, 1721. He lived several years at Detroit, and was a man of considerable importance, having charge of the public storehouse and acting as amanuensis for Cadillac. Vien, Ignace. Came as voyageur. June 12. 1706. Died 1751, aged 80 years. Villain, Pierre, soldier in company of De Le Mothe. Volant, Jean Francois, sieur de Fosseneuve. Agreed to go to Detroit to serve as a hunter, July 10, 1703. He was born in 1670, and married Marguerite Godfroy June 6, 1701. Xaintonge, ??. When I first encountered this name it stood alone without any connecting names. I concluded it was an Indian name and so stated. Further investigation has led me to conclude that I was greatly mistaken, and that the individual was named Pierre Gareau, dit St. Onge, and that the name St. Onge has been graduallly changed to Saintonge and from that to Xaintonge. Zerbain, Pierre, dit St. Pierre, a soldier.
FR. DENISSEN'S LETTER.
Detroit, Mich., Nov. 9th, 1896. Dear Friend Burton: I have read with relish your series of articles and the Directory of Detroit from 1701 to 1710, as published in the Sunday News-Tribune. The many new facts you furnish on that interesting period of Detroit's infancy must be very acceptable to every lover of local history. No directory can be complete without a full and well authenticated list of all the officers, soldiers and civilians who arrived here with Cadillac on the 24th of July, 1701. In your indefatigable researches, I hope you will yet find all the names of the whole party who founded Fort Pontchartrain at the Detroit. You have the taste, the means, and the ability to bring to light that coveted treasure. Cadillac must have made a record of all those engaged by him to undertake that difficult expedition from Montreal to Detroit, to establish that well-planned post for the French Government. He always gave such an elaborate account of himself, his doings, his surroundings and his plans; certainly he did not omit to record the full particulars of the greatest achievement of his military life, the founding of the most important post in the Northwest of America, a work entirely his own, in conception and execution. He made his preparations in Montreal; there he selected with care men who could stand the hardships of this arduous task. He must have had a list of his soldiers, for all had to be paid regularly; the civilians who accompanied him must have made agreements with their leader, for they were in quest of gain. Written contracts signed before a notary were the fashion in those days. Cadillac and his party took the Ottawa route to Detroit. The French voyageurs of those times had calculated with precision the difficulties of their trips. Coming west, they favored the Ottawa route; going east, they preferred traveling by the Niagara Portage; this gave them as much as possible the benefit of the water current. Cadillac arrived in the Detroit River and selected his landing place on the 24th of July, 1701. Immediately the party went to work to procure shelter for themselves. On the second day after their landing, the 26th of July, on the feast of St. Ann, the priests, the government chaplains of the party, held religious services for the new settlers, and mass was celebrated for the first time at Detroit; the incipient church was dedicated, on account of the feast of the day, to St. Ann, and St. Ann's church has remained to this day the mother church of Detroit. There is no account that any white man had his abode at the Detroit River previous to Cadillac. You proved satisfactorily that neither Peter Roy nor Joseph Parent could have been here before July of 1701. There is no ground for the belief that a Francis Peltier preceded Cadillac. It could not have been Francis Peltier, the son of Francis Peltier and Margaret Magdelene Morisseau, for he died in Lower Canada before 1698; his widow, Magdelene Thunay, dit Dufresne, married again at Montreal on the 9th of January, 1698, Peter Maillet. His son, John Francis Peltier, born at Sorel, Lower Canada, August 15, 1691, came to Detroit with his stepfather's family about the year 1705-06, and married there March 25, 1718, Mary Louisa Robert. Peter Roy married, probably in 1703, a Miamis Indian, aud took up his residence in the village of the Miamis, who had been induced by Cadillac to come and settle near Detroit. Cadillac might have wished that the men of his party marry Indian women, but Peter Roy is about the only one who did so. Those vigorous pioneers did not shape their love affairs on the utilitarian plan. The young men grew lonesome in this wilderness, and their thoughts would wander back to the girls they left behind them. Permission was readily granted to any one who wanted to return to Lower Canada to secure a bride. According as these treasures were imported to Detroit, the place grew more civilized, and the inhabitants felt more at home and contented. The French of Detroit and vicinity never intermarried with the Indians to any great extent; there have been a few exceptional cases, but such marriages were rare, and, because so rare, they were all the more noticed. No bride suits the French heart as well as the frank, modest, polite, charming French maiden, who has the desirable faculty to grace her home as a queen and bring happiness to her surroundings. In the eighteenth century the girls married very young. The marriage bond was considered indissoluble; divorces were unknown; scandalous infidelities, at least on the part of the women, seem not to have occurred. Marriages were contracted with all the precautions with which the Church guards that sacred contract. The settlers of the outposts were in constant communication with the people of Lower Canada. They knew each other and their marriage relations. It was almost impossible for a man to abandon his lawful wife in Lower Canada and marry surreptitiously in Detroit or vicinity. The French home with its contentedness, made the maintenance of Fort Pontchartrain at Detroit feasible. Detroit owes much to the French mothers of the eighteenth century. Your directory shows what share they had during the first ten years of our city's existence. Allow me to make a few interpolations in your great work. Aymard seems to me to be the correct spelling for Hernart or Maimart. The name is given also as Adhemard and Haymard. Peter Aymard married at Lachine, June 12, 1706, Mary Ann Lalande, dit Filiastreau, born at Lachine, February 18, 1685, daughter of Stephen Lalande and Nicole Filiastreau. Peter Aymard returned to Lachine in 1710-11. Julian Bariteau, dit Lamarche, did not remain in Detroit. His grandson, Charles Bariteau, dit Lamarche, born at Lougueuil, Lower Canada, May 26, 1743, settled at Detroit, and married there January 7, 1783, Jane Bernard. He moved to Sandwich, Ont., a few years later, where he died September 24, 1810. The family of Bariteau, dit Lamarche, and their descendants remained in the vicinity of Sandwich even to the present day. The brothers Bazinet, Peter and Joseph, did not take up their residence in Detroit. Joseph's grandson moved to Detroit and married there July 12, 1784, Mary Louisa Meloche. Peter's grandson, John Louis Bazinet, moved with his family to Sandwich, Ont. Some of his descendants moved to Detroit; many of them are residing at present at Mt. Clemens, at the Clinton River, near New Baltimore, and near St. Clair River. Francis Bienvenu, dit Delisle, came to Detroit with his family before March, 1704. His son Joseph was born at Detroit March 5, 1704, and twelve of his fourteen children were born at Detroit. Tauguay states that his son Alexis Bienvenu, dit Delisle, was born at Detroit in 1701. I do not see what evidence Taugnay could have for this assertion. The registers of Detroit for 1701-02-03 were burned. I suppose this is a misprint in Tanguay. The same author gives a son Anthony, from the first marriage, who married at Kaskakia, June 3, 1726, Frances Rabut. This Anthony must have been a resident of Detroit. Andrew Bombardier was born in the City of Lille, Belgium. He left Detroit after 1709, and remained in Lower Canada. His grandson, Philip Bombardier, dit Labombarde, moved with his family to Sandwich, Out., about 1788, where his descendants can be found at the present day. Charles Cabassier came to Detroit on business. His son, Joseph Cabassier, born at Montreal May 2, 1722, came to Detroit and married there January 19, 1753, Augelica Bienvenu, dit Delisle. His descendants are still in Detroit or vicinity. Anthony Campau, born at Montreal January 1, 1702; Michael Campau, born at Montreal January 22, 1707, children of Michael Campau, were residents of Detroit. Henry Campau, born at Montreal December 3, 1704, and Mary Ann Cecilia Campau, born at Montreal June 21, 1707, children of James Campau, were residents of Detroit before 1710. Paul Dumouchel was in Detroit on business and did not settle there. His son, Paul Dumouchel, born at Montreal January 11, 1717, came to Detroit, married there January 26, 1749, Jane Chapoton, daughter of Dr. John Chapoton, and Mary Magdelene Esteve. His wife died the next year, and he returned to Lower Canada. Louis Vital Dumouchel, born at Montreal December 12, 1745, grandson of Paul Dumouchel, Sr., came to Sandwich, Out., and married there November 22, 1773, Magdelene Gouyou. They are the ancestors of all the Dumouchels of the vicinity of Sandwich and Amherstburg. John Le Duc, who paid a visit to Detroit October 11, 1710, moved there with his family about the year 1732. Many of his descendants reside in Detroit and vicinity at the present day. Rene Maillet was a brother of Peter Maillet. He did not remain in Detroit; some of his grandchildren settled there. John Francis Peltier, born at Sorel, Lower Canada August 15, 1691, was a citizen of Detroit. His father, Francis Peltier, died in Lower Canada before 1698. Young John Francis came to Detroit, with his stepfather's family, about the year 1705-06. He married at Detroit, Mary Louisa Robert, daughter of Peter Robert and Angelica Ptolomee. He was buried there, about the year 1723. He is the forefather of the numerous Peltiers of Detroit, Monroe, Toledo, Mt. Clemens, Port Huron, etc. He is the great-great-great-grandfather of Priscilla Mary Ann Peltier, wife of Alexander Chapoton, our well-known contractor. Mary Peltier, born in 1697, sister of John Francis Peltier, also came to Detroit with her stepfather. Mary Louisa Robert, born at Lachine December 15, 1698, came to Detroit May 19, 1708, with her parents, Peter Robert and Angelica Ptolome. She married John Francis Peltier. After his death she married again, at Detroit, January 7, 1725, John Louis Campau. She was buried at Detroit April 2, 1776. She is the great-great-grandmother of Daniel J. Campau, of our city. Peter Robert, born at Lachine, November 5, 1704, is a brother of above Mary Louisa. He is the ancestor of many of the Roberts of Monroe and vicinity. Robert Reaume, brother of Charles Reaume, together with Joseph Trotier, dit Desruisseaux, and Toussaint Pothier, dit Laverdure, was engaged on the 5th of September, 1701, to escort Mrs. De Lamothe Cadillac, Mrs. Alphonse Tonti and their children from Montreal to Detroit, and at the same time to accompany Francis Mary Picote de Belestre and equipages on the same trip. Mrs. Cadillac's cousin, Mary Guyon, was married to Rene Reaume, brother of this Robert. Robert Reaume did not settle in Detroit. His sons, Hyacinthe and Peter Reaume, became residents of Detroit after their marriage, and are forefathers of all the Reaumes of this vicinity. Alphonse Tonti, Baron of Paludy, born in 1659, came to Canada in the military service of the French Government. In 1687, he passed through the Detroit River, having orders to join Daniel Duluth de Greyzelon, who then built a stockade, called Fort St. Joseph, at the mouth of Lake Huron, where now is Fort Gratiot. This palisade was destroyed a year later. Alphonse Tonti accompanied Cadillac, as captain of the military expedition, to establish Fort Pontchartrain at the Detroit, in 1701. Jealous of Cadillac, and encouraged by his (Cadillac's) enemies, he plotted the failure and destruction of the post at Detroit. This led to the incendiary fire in the fort of Detroit, in the latter part of 1703, when the church, the house of the Recolets and the records were burned. History sustained an irreparable loss by the burning of those registers, containing the births, marriages, deaths and historical notes of the three infantile years of Detroit. Beyond doubt, the baptism of Tonti's daughter Teresa was registered in those books. This Teresa Tonti is the first child born in Detroit, of whom we have any certainty. Tonti married at Montreal February 17, 1689, Mary Ann Picote de Belestre, born at Montreal February 9, 1673, daughter of Peter Picote de Belestre and Mary Pars. Mary Ann Picote de Belestre was buried at Montreal Sept.11, 1714. Alphonse Tonti married again at Montreal May 3, 1717, Mary Ann La Marque. Alphonse Tonti was commandant of Fort Pontchartrain of Detroit, from 1720 to 1727, in which year he died, and was buried at Detroit November 10. The following Tonti children must have resided at Detroit previous to 1710. Philip Tonti, born at Montreal September 30, 1689; Mary Frances Tonti, born at Montreal October 19, 1690, became a nun of the Congregation of Notre Dame, by the name of Sister St. Anthony; she was buried at Montreal June 14, 1748; Alphonse Tonti, born at Montreal October 30, 1691; Mary Helena Tonti, born at Montreal February 22, 1693; Louis Tonti, born at Montreal February 25, 1694, was buried there December 12, 1715; Henry Hector Tonti, born at Montreal December 21, 1695; Charles Henry Tonti, born at Montreal May 13, 1697, became governor of Fort St Louis; Claude Joseph Tonti, born at Montreal August 18, 1700; Teresa Tonti, born at Detroit, in 1703. Tuffe, dit Dufresne, Antoine: This name is also found as Tuve. The correct name is Thunay, dit Dufresne, Anthony, born in 1680, son of Felix Thunay, dit Dufresne and Isabelle Lefebvre. Anthony's sister, Magdelene, married Francis Peltier, and, after his death, Peter Maillet. His other sister, Margaret, married Toussaint Pothier, dit Laverdure, who escorted Mrs. Cadillac and Mrs. Tonti to Detroit. In one of your articles you say: "I confess that I do not understand how the old French names are made up." The various changes of French names are truly a puzzle to the student of genealogy. The following explanations and illustrations, I think, will account for most of those innovations: 1. The early colonists of Lower Canada obtained from the French Government grants of extensive tracts of land. These grants were executed in the mediaeval phraseology used under the feudal system of bolding estate. The settlers assuming a resemblance between their holdings and the domains of the French barons and "seignerns," called their large, wild farms by certain titles, and affixed the same to their own family names, in imitation of the European nobility. In some cases these titles were confirmed by the government. The owners of these vast estates considered themselves seigneurs of this new country, and were very proud of the affixes to their names. In business transactions these additions to their signatures were used with all their flourishes. At baptisms the title had to be entered in the parish registers; at marriages the affix to the old family name sounded high both for bride and groom in the verbose marriage contract; respectability was increased by the presence of many witnesses with titled names. In this manner the owners of large estates in Lower Canada, at a certain period of the seventeenth century, looked upon themselves and upon each other as a quasi-nobility. Their children naturally assumed those titles and often thought more of the affixes than of their own family names. Feudalism was about dead, and fast dying in Europe in those days, and therefore could not gain foothold in America. In the eighteenth century we do not find new titles originating; still the old ones remained. The grandchildren and great-grandchildren of these titled pioneers often discarded the old family name and were known only by the new title. Hence the new names that the genealogist has to contend with. As an illustration, take the Trotier family. The Trotiers of America all descend from Julius Trotier, born in 1590, in the parish of St. Martin, in the Town of Ige, in the province of Perche, France. He, seemingly a common citizen, came with his family to Canada about the year 1645. His children married in Canada, and, in the course of time, had large families. They obtained extensive estates and were very lavish in originating titles for the same. In a few years we find Trotier Sieur des Ruisseaux, Trotier Seigneur de l'Isle Perrot, Trotier Sieur de Beaubien, Trotier Seigneur de la Riviere du Loup, Trotier Seigneur de l'Isle aux Herons, Trotier Sieur des Aulniers, Trotier de la Bissonniere, Trotier dit Desrivieres, Trotier de Bellecour, Trotier de Valcour, etc. Many of these Trotiers gradualiy dropped the family name and signed only the assumed title. Hence we have the families of Beaubien, Desruisseaux, Desaulniers, Bellecour, Labissonniere, Desrivieres, Devalcour, etc. All these trace to a common ancestor, Julius Trotier. 2. Another cause of the change of French names was the custom so prevalent in former times, of nicknaming themselves and others. This was done sometimes to discern one family from another of the same name; as a family Baron was nicknamed Lupien-Baron dit Lupien to distinguish it from other Baron families, Lupien being the Christian name of the ancestor of that family in this country. At other occasions the nickname originated through family pride; when a member was distinguished, that branch of a family would annex the Christian name of the hero, or; if a woman, the family name of the revered heroine. In this manner some Cuilleriers lost their own name through the marriage of John Cuillerier with Mary Catherine Trotier de Beaubien; this lady was distinguished through her family title of Beaubien, and after John Cuillerier's death, by becoming the wife of Francis Picote de Belestre, an officer of Fort Pontchartrain. On this account her children from the first marriage signed themselves Cuillerier dit Beaubien, and in later generations Cuillerier was dropped and nothing was left but Beaubien. These are the Beaubiens of our vicinity. Another instance of the same kind we find in the family of Leonard. Leonard Simon, born at Montreal, September 3, 1656, was considered by his descendants to have been a great man, consequently the family name became Simon dit Leonard; in time the old name Simon was dropped and Leonard became the family name. These Leonards we find in Monroe and vicinity in great abundance. Again families glorifying the section of country their forefathers came from, added to their names the province, city or town of their ancestor. In this manner the Sedilot family, who came from the City of Montreuil, in Picardy, France, became Sedilot dit Montreuil, and later on are simply Montreuil. So it was with Casse, who originated from the town of St. Aubin; they became Casse dit St. Aubin, and now are only St. Aubin. The same we find in Bourgeat, who came from the province of Provence; they adopted Bourgeat dit Provencal, and now are Provencal. We meet with the same case in the family of Lootman, who are of Holland origin, and moved from the Netherlands to the province of Berry, France; they became in Canada Lootman dit Barrois, later on in Detroit we find them as Barrois. The same is true of Toulouse, Champagne, Gascon, Langoumois, and many others. There are nick-names that originated from the peculiar circumstances of birth, like Nicolas Campau dit Niagara, who was born at the Portage of Niagara, when his parents were traveling from Detroit to Montreal. It happened, also, that nicknames were given by Indians, as Labadie dit Badichon, Peltier dit Antaya. Nicknames have also been given frivolously and would stick in future generations, as in the family of Poissant, sounding like Poisson (fish), by adding Lasaline (salt), Poissant dit Lasaline (saltfish). Another way of nicknaming was by adopting a peculiar Christian name by which a certain person was known in the community; so we find in the fanuly of Le Tourneux, a Jean Baptiste Le Tourneux, who settled in Sandwich, opposite the Michigan Central Depot of present Detroit, about 110 years ago. He was known by everyone as Jeannette (the diminutive name of Jean); by incorrect spelling he became Janet and Janette, hence Le Tourneux dit Janette. His numerous descendants are called Janette. From him we have Janette street in Windsor, Ont., and farther west Janette's Creek, and Janette railroad station. The most curious way of changing of names we find in the family of Ellair or Elaire. The common ancestor is Hilaire Surean, who came from France and married at Quebec June 18, 1691. His son's name was Peter Sureau dit Blondin, who married at Montreal in 1723; and his children signed themselves Blondin dit Hilaire. Their descendants were named Hilaire, and in Detroit the name has been corrupted to Ellair. Other modes might be mentioned. It is singular that scarcely a name has been adopted from the trade, occupation or profession that a person followed. These nicknames are attached to the name proper by the word "dit," which might be rendered in our language by "called," "named," "namely," "to wit," "known as;" but "dit" is so idiomatically French that it can hardly be translated into English. The suppression of "s" in some names, as from Chesne to Chene, Estienne to Etienne, is accounted for by the evolution of the French language from the old form to the modern way of spelling. I hope, Mr. Burton, that my explanations may assist you in the great work, which seems to you a pleasure. Yours sincerely, CHRISTIAN DENISSEN, Pastor of St. Charles', Detroit.