An excerpt from the book:
Edward W. Laine National Archives of Canada 395 Wellington Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0N3 613-995-5138 ISBN:0-662-56435-9
This bibliography is intended for researchers involved in the study of the Finnish heritage in Canada. Special emphasis is given here to publications that are of particular interest to those researchers who wish to make use of the manuscript collections in the National Archives. ARCHIVAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE WORKS AND RESEARCH TOOLS Because the Finnish presence in Canada resulted from international migration, even the location of the archival and bibliographical documentation pertaining to this presence has been reflective of that migration process. Consequently, the documentary sources relating to the Finnish-Canadian community have been deposited in a wide number of archival institutions and libraries both in this country and abroad. The following reference works and research tools, it is hoped, provide a comprehensive listing of the whereabouts of most of the available sources.
Books and Pamphlets
BLOUIN, Francis X., Jr., and Robert M. WARNER (eds.). Sources for the Study of Migration and Ethnicity: A Guide to Manuscripts in Finland, Ireland, Poland, The Netherlands, and the State of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1979. BUREAU OF CANADIAN ARCHIVISTS. Directory of Canadian Archives. Edited by Judith Beatty et al. N.p., n.d. CANADA. Department of the Secretary of State, Multiculturalism Directorate. The Canadian Family Tree: Canada's Peoples. Ottawa, 1979. CANADA. National Library. Checklist of Canadian Ethnic Serials. Comp. by Ruth Bogusis. Ottawa, 1981. ________ Union List of Canadian Newspapers held by Canadian Libraries. Ottawa, 1977. CANADA. Public Archives. Archival Citations: Suggestions for the Citation of Archival Documents at the Public Archives of Canada. Edited by Terry Cook in collaboration with Victorin Chabot. Ottawa, 1984. ________ General Guide Series 1983. 8 vols. Ottawa, 1983-1985. ________ Guide to CBC Sources at the Public Archives. Comp. by Ernest J. Dick. Ottawa, 1987. ________ Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives. Edited by Christopher Seifried. Ottawa, 1984. _______ Historical Records of the Government of Canada. Comp. by Terry Cook and Glenn T. Wright. Ottawa, 1981. _______ Inventory of the Collections of the National Film, Television and Sound Archives. Comp. by Jean T. Guénette and Jacques Gagné. Ottawa, 1983. ________ Selections from the Finnish Organization of Canada Collection. By Edward W. Laine. Rev. ed.; Ottawa, 1979. Tracing Your Ancestors in Canada. Revised by Janine Roy in 1987. Ninth ed.; Ottawa, 1988. ________ Union List of Foreign Topographic Map Series in Canadian Map Collections, edited by Louis Cardinal. Ottawa, 1986. ________ Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories. 2 vols. Edited by E. Grace Maurice. Ottawa, 1975. ________ Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories: Supplement 1976. Edited by E. Grace Maurice. Ottawa, 1976. ________ Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories: Supplement 1977-1978. Edited by Grace Maurice Hyam. Ottawa, 1979. ________ Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories: Supplement 1979-1980. Edited by Peter Yurkiw. Ottawa, 1982. ________ Union List of Manuscripts in Canadian Repositories: Supplement 1981-1982. Edited by Peter Yurkiw. Ottawa, 1985. GRANT, Steven A., and John H. BROWN. The Russian Empire and Soviet Union: A Guide to Manuscripts and Archival Materials in the United States. Boston, Massachusetts, 1981. HELSINGIN YLIOPISTON KIRJASTO. Suomen sanomalehtien mikrofilmit. 2 vols. Helsinki, 1971, 1976. HOERDER, Dirk, ed. The Newspaper and Serial Holdings of the Immigration History Research Center, University of Minnesota. Part 3: Finnish-American Periodicals. Bremen, 1987. HOGLUND, A. William, comp. Union List of Finnish Newspapers Published by Finns in the United States and Canada 1876-1985. St. Paul, Minnesota, 1986. KARNI, Michael C. The Finnish-American Collection. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1976. KOIVUKANGAS, Olavi, and Simo TOIVONEN (comps.). Suomen siirtolaisuuden ja maassamuuton bibliografia/A Bibliography on Finnish Emigration and Internal Migration. Turku, 1978. KOLEHMAINEN, John I. The Finns in America. A Bibliographical Guide to Their History. Hancock, Michigan, 1947. KOTIRANTA, Kaarina. Amerikansuomalaisen kirjallisuuden yhteisluettelo/Union List of American Finnish Literature. Helsingin yliopiston kirjaston monistesaarja 3. Helsinki, 1970. LAINE, Edward W. On the Archival Heritage of the Finnish Working-Class Movement: A Researcher's Guide and Inventory to the Finnish Organization of Canada Collection at the National Archives of Canada. Turku, 1987. PALM, Charles C., and Dale REED. Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives. Stanford, California, 1979. SACK, Sallyann Amdur, and Suzan Fishl WYNNE. The Russian Consular Records Index and Catalog. New York and London, 1987. SOUTH, Charles. List of National Archives Microfilm Publications in the Regional Archives Branches. Washington, District of Columbia, 1975. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Library of Congress. The National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections. Washington, District of Columbia, 1959- VIRTANEN, Keijo. Letters to Finland. The Finns in the United States: The Project on Finnish Immigration of the Michigan Historical Collections. Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1976. WEINRICH, Peter. Social Protest from the Left in Canada, 1870-1970: A Bibliography. Toronto, 1982. WYNAR, Lubomyr R. Encyclopedic Directory of Ethnic Newspapers and Periodicals in the United States. 2nd cd. Littleton, Colorado, 1976. ________ and Lois BUTTLAR Guide to Ethnic Museums, Libraries, and Archives in the United States. Kent, Ohio, 1978.
BOHM, W.D. "Finnish Canadian Periodical Publications: A Preliminary Checklist." Canadian Ethnic Studies, 1969, no. 1: 5-6. HOGLUND, A. William. "Archival Material on Ethnic Groups in the United States." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp.4-15. JÖNSSON-KORHOLA, Hannele. "American-Finnish Material in the Finnish Language Tape Archives." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 328-334. LAINE, Edward W. "Archival Sources Relating to Finnish Canadians." Archivaria, no. 7 (Winter, 1978): 110-116. "Expanding Opportunities for the Study of the Finnish Canadian Heritage at the Public Archives of Canada." Siirtolaisuus/Migration, 1977, no. 2:1-5,9. _______ "On Documenting the Russian Presence in Canada." In T.F. Jeletzky et al. (eds.), Russian Canadians: Their Past and Present (Ottawa, 1983), pp. xvii-xxiii. ________ "Kallista Perintöä- Precious Legacy!" Finnish-Canadian Archives,1882-1985." Archivaria, no. 22 (Summer 1986): 75-94. MÄKELÄ-HENDRIKSSON, Eeva. "Helsingin yliopiston kirjaston amerikan-suomalainen kokoelma." Bibliophilos, 1976, no. 3: 75-77. NIITEMAA, Vilho. "Emigration Research in Finland." In Karni, Kaups and Ollila, Jr., (eds.), The Finnish Experience: 12-20. PENTI-VIDUTUS, Marsha. "The American Letters: Immigrant Accounts of Life Overseas." Finnish Americana 1 (1978): 22-40. VIRTANEN, Keijo. "Sources for the Study of Migration in the Archives of Finland.' In Blouin and Warner (eds.), Sources for the Study of Migration, pp. 189-214.
Although focussing primarily on recent literature specifically concerned with the Finnish-Canadian community itself, this bibliography also includes some of those works that shed light on the community's development within the broader context of the Canadian society at large or trace the course of that development in relation to Finland and the Finnish-American community in the United States. For additional bibliographic information on the older literature not listed here, see the reference works by Hoglund, Koivukangas and Toivonen, Kolehmainen, Kotiranta, and Laine noted in the "Books and Pamphlets" section above. Researchers should also be aware that many of the older publications are in one or another of the Finnish-Canadian collections at the National Archives.
Newspapers and Other Serials
Aika, 1901-1904. Published by the Aika Printing Company Limited, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Ajan Sana, 1949-1958(?). Published by Pastor Emmanuel Snellman until 1951 and then by the Finnish Publishing Company, both being situated in Vancouver, British Columbia. Canadan Uutiset, 1915- . First published by the Canada News Publishing Company, Port Arthur, Ontario, and, after many changes of ownership since then, now published by Finnews Limited, Thunder Bay (formerly Port Arthur), Ontario. Canadan Viesti, 1931-1978. Published by the United Church of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Vancouver, British Columbia. Isien Usko, 1936- . First published by the Canadan Suomalaisten Evankelis-Luterilaisten Konferenssi (Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Conference in Canada), Winnipeg, Manitoba; currently "sponsored" by the Suomi Konferenssi, Amerikan Luterilainen Kirkko/Kanadan alue (Suomi Conference of the Lutheran Church of America/Canada district), with the place of publication being given as Toronto, Ontario. Liekki, 1935-1974 (subsumed by Viikkosanomat). Published by Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, Sudbury, Ontario. Länsirannikon Uutiset, 1975- (subsumed Uusi Länsi?). Published by the Vancouver Finlandia Club, Surrey, British Columbia. Maa- ja Metsätyöläinen, 1930-1932. Published by the Lumber and Agricultural Industrial Workers' Union of Canada, Sudbury, Ontario. Metsätyöläinen, 1925-1930. Published initially by the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union of Canada as a mimeographed publication emanating from its Port Arthur headquarters; from 1927 onwards, it was printed by Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, Sudbury, Ontario. Metsätyöläinen, 1932-1935(?). Published by the Lumber Workers' Industrial Union of Canada and printed by Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, Sudbury Ontario. Toronton Viikko-Uutiset, 1932-1936 (subsumed by Viikko-Uutiset). Published by Paul Saarimäki, Toronto, Ontario. Työkansa, 1907-1915. Published by the Finnish Publishing Company Limited, Port Arthur, Ontario. Uusi Länsi, 1966-(?). Published by the New West Press Company (later, New West Press Company Limited), Vancouver, British Columbia. Vapaa Sana, 1931- . First published under the authority of the Co-operative Publishing Association of Canada, Sudbury, Ontario, and then, following a series of name changes in the publisher of record that culminated at the end of 1936, by the Vapaa Sana Press Limited. Vapaus, 1917-1974 (subsumed by Viikkosanomat). Initially published in Sudbury by the Vapaus publishing arm of the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada and its successors until 1935, when the responsibility for this newspaper's publication was assumed by the newly incorporated Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, Sudbury, Ontario. Vapaus, 1987- (subsumed Viikkosanomat). Published by Vapaus Publishing Company Limited, Toronto, Ontario. Viikkosanomat, 1974-1987 (subsumed Liekki and Vapaus; subsumed by Vapaus). Published by Vapaus Publishing Company Limited. Viikko-Uutiset, 1936-1937(?) (subsumed Toronton Viikko-Uutiset). Published by Paul Saarimäki, Toronto, Ontario.
Books and Pamphlets
AHOLA, David John. Finnish-Americans and International Communism: A Study of Finnish-American Communism from Bolshevizationto the Demise of the Third International. Washington, District of Columbia, 1981. ANGUS, Ian. Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada. Montreal, 1981. AVAKUMOVIC, Ivan. The Communist Party of Canada: A History. Toronto, 1975. ________ Socialism in Canada. A Study of the CCF-NDP in Federal and Provincial Politics. Toronto. 1978. AVERY, Donald. "Dangerous Foreigners": The European Immigrant Workers and Labour Radicalism in Canada, 1896-1932. Toronto, 1979. BETCHERMAN, Lita-Rose. The Little Band: The Clashes between the Communists and the Political and Legal Establishment in Canada, 1928-1932. Ottawa, 1982. BRADWIN, Edmund. The Bunkhouse Man: A Study of Work and Pay in the Camps of Canada 1903-1914. Toronto, 1972. BUCK, Tim. Yours in the Struggle: Reminiscences of Tim Buck. Edited by William Beeching and Phyllis Clarke. Toronto, 1977. BURNT LAKE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Along the Burnt Lake Trail. Calgary, 1977. Canada's Party of Socialism: History of the Communist Party of Canada, 1921-1976. Published by the Communist Party of Canada. Toronto, 1982. Chronicle of Ladysmith and District. Comp. by Viola Johnson-Cull with E. Norcross. Victoria, 1981. DAHLIE, Jorgen, and Tissa FERNANDO (eds.). Ethnicity, Power and Politics in Canada. Toronto, 1981. EKLUND, William. Builders of Canada: History of the Finnish Organization of Canada, 1911-1971. Trans. by Vappu Tyyskä. Toronto, 1987. ________ Canadan rakentajia: Canadan Suomalaisen Järjestön historia, 1911-1971. Toronto, 1983. ENGLE, Eloise. Finns in North America. Annapolis, Maryland, 1975. FINNISH ORGANIZATION OF CANADA. Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö 25 vuotta. Kuvauksia ja muistelmia 25-vuotiselta tomintataipaleelta, 1911-1936. Sudbury, 1936. GRÖNLUND, Aili. The Finnish Baker's Daughter. Toronto, 1986. HANNULA, J.O. Finland's War of Independence. London, 1939. HOAR, Victor. The Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion. Toronto, 1969. HODGSON, John H. Communism in Finland: A History and an Interpretation. Princeton, New Jersey, 1967. HUMMASTI, Paul George. Finnish Radicals in Astoria, Oregon, 1904-1940: A Study in Immigrant Socialism. New York, 1979. HÄMÄLÄINEN, PEKKA. In Time of Storm: Civil War and the Ethnolinguistic Issue in Finland. Albany, New York, 1979. JACOBSON, Max. The Diplomacy of the Winter War. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. JALAVA, Mauri A. Toronton Suomalainen Osuuspankki, 1958-1978. Toronto, 1978. JUTIKKALA, Eino, and Kauko PIRINEN. A History of Finland. Rev. ed.; New York, 1974. KALEMAA, Kalevi. Matti Kurikka. Legenda jo eläessään. Porvoo, 1978. KARNI, Michael C. (cd.). Finnish Diaspora, vol. 1: Canada, South America, Africa, Australia and Sweden; and vol. 2: United States. Toronto, 1981. ________ Matti E. KAUPS, and Douglas J. OLLILA, Jr., (eds.). The Finnish Experience in the Great Lakes Region: New Perspectives. Vammala, 1975. _______ Olavi KOIVUKANGAS, and Edward W. LAINE (eds.). Finns in North America. Turku, 1988. ________ and Douglas OLLILA, Jr., (eds.). For the Common Good: Finnish Immigrants and the Radical Response to Industrial America. Superior, Wisconsin, 1977. KERO, Reino. The Finns in North America: Destinations and Composition of Immigrant Societies in North America before World War I. Turku, 1980. Migration from Finland to North America in the Years between the United States Civil War and the First World War. Turku, 1974. Neuvosto-Karjalaa rakentamassa: Pohjois-Amerikan suomalaiset tekniikan tuojina 1930-luvun Neuvosto-Karjalassa. Helsinki, 1983. ________ Suomen siirtolaisuuden historia, vol. 1: Pohjois-amerikkaan suuntautuneen siirtolaisuuden tausta, määrä, rakenne, kuljetusorganisaatio ja sijoituminen päämäärä-alueelle. Turku, 1982. ________ Suuren lännen suomalaiset. Helsinki, 1976. KIRBY, D.G. Finland in the Twentieth Century. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1979. KIVISTO, Peter. Immigrant Socialists in the United States: The Case of the Finns and the Left. Cranbury, New Jersey, 1984. KOSTIAINEN, Auvo. The Forging of Finnish-American Communism, 1917-1924. Turku, 1978. ________ Santeri Nuorteva-Kansanvälinen Suomalainen. Helsinki, 1983. _________ and Arja PILLI. Suomen siirtolaisuuden historia, vol. 2: Aatteellinen toiminta. Turku, 1983. KUUSINEN, Aino. Before and After Stalin: A Personal Account of Soviet Russia from the 1920s to the 1960s. Trans. from the German by Paul Stevenson. London, 1974. ________ Jumala syöksee enkelinsä. Muistelmat vuosilta 1919-1965. Keuruu, 1972. ________ The Rings of Destiny: Inside Soviet Russia From Lenin to Brezhnev. Trans. from the German by Paul Stevenson. New York, 1974. LAINE, Edward W. (cd.). Scandinavian-Canadian Studies. Ottawa, 1983. LINDSTRÖM-BEST, Varpu. The Finnish Immigrant Community of Toronto, 1887- 1913. The Multicultural History Society of Ontario, Occasional Paper no. 1. Toronto, 1979. ________ The Finns in Canada. Ottawa, 1985. ________ and Charles M. SUTYLA (eds.). Terveisiä Ruusa-tädiltä: Kanadan suomalaisten ensimmäinen sukupolvi. Tampere, 1984. LUNDEN, C. Leonard. Finland in the Second World War. New York, 1973. NEVAKIVI, Jukka. The Appeal That Was Never Made: The Allies, Scandinavia, and the Finnish Winter War, 1939-1940. Montreal, 1976. ________ Muurmannin legioona: Suomalaiset ja Liittouduneiden interventio Pohjois-Venäjälle 1918-1919. Helsinki, 1970. NIITEMAA, Vilho, Jussi SAUKKONEN, Tauri AALTIO, and Olavi KOIVUKANCAS (eds.). Old Friends-Strong Ties. Vaasa, 1976. PAASIVIRTA, Juhani. Finland and Europe: International Crises in the Period of Autonomy 1808-1914. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1981. PENNER, Norman. Canadian Communism: The Stalin Years and Beyond. Toronto, 1988. PILLI, Arja. TheFinnish-Language Press in Canada, 1901-1939. A Study in the History of Ethnic Journalism. Turku, 1982. POLVINEN, Tuomo. Between East and West: Finland in International Politics, 1944-1947. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1986. PUOTINEN, Arthur Edwin. Finnish Radicals and Religion in Midwestern Mining Towns, 1865-1914. New York, 1979. Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): Finns in Ontario, a special issue, edited by Varpu Lindström-Best. PUNTILA, L.A. The Political History of Finland, 1809-1966. London, 1975. RAIVIO, Yrjö. Kanadan suomalaisten historia. 2 vols. Copper Cliff, Vancouver, 1975, 1978. RINTALA, Three Generations: The Extreme Right in Finnish Politics. Bloomington, Indiana, 1962. RODNEY, William. Soldiers of thelnternational: A History of the Communist Party of Canada. Toronto, 1968. ROSS, Carl. The Finn Factor in American Labor, Culture and Society. New York Mills, Minnesota, 1977. ROSSEL, Sven H. A History of Scandinavian Literature, 1870-1980. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1980. SCHELSTRAETE, Nancy Mattson (ed.). Life in the New Finland Woods. A History of New Finland, Saskatchewan. Rocanville, Saskatchewan, 1982. SOLSKI, Mike, and John SMALLER. The Mine Mill Book: The International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (Canada). Ottawa, 1985. SUNDSTÉN, Taru. Amerikansuomalainen työväenteatteri ja näytelmäkirjallisuus vuosina 1900-1939. Turku, 1977. SUTYLA, Charles M. The Finnish Sauna in Manitoba. Ottawa, 1978. THUNDER BAY FINNISH CANADIAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY. A Chronicle of Finnish Settlements in Rural Thunder Bay. Thunder Bay, 1976. TOKOI, Oskari. "Even through a Stone Wall": The Autobiography of Oskari Tokoi. New York, 1957. UPTON, Anthony F. Finland in Crisis, 1940-1941. Ithaca, New York, 1964. ________ The Finnish Revolution 1917-1918. Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1980. VAPAUS. Vapaus 1917-1 934. Sudbury 1934. VIRTANEN, Keijo, Arja PILLI, and Auvo KOSTIAINEN. Suomen siirtolaisuuden historia, vol. 3: Sopeutuminen, kulttuuritoiminta ja paluumuutto. Turku, 1986.
ANDERSON, Alan B., and Brenda NISKALA. "Finnish Settlements in Saskatchewan: Their Development and Perpetuation." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 155-182. AVERY, Donald. "Continental European Immigrant Workers in Canada, 1896-1919: From `Stalwart Peasants' to Radical Proletariat." The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 12 (1975): 53-64. ________ "Ethnic Loyalties and the Proletarian Revolution: A Case Study of Communist Political Activity in Winnipeg, 1923-1936." In Dahlie and Fernando (eds.), Ethnicity, Power and Politics, pp. 68-93. DRYSEK, Henry F. "'The Simplest and Cheapest Mode of Dealing with Them': Deportation from Canada before World War II." Histoire sociale 15 (Nov. 1982): 407-441. EKLUND, William. `The Formative Years of the Finnish Organization of Canada." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 49-59. ________ "Labour and Cultural Organizations of Finnish Canadians." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 236-249. HOGLUND, A. William. "Breaking with Religious Tradition: Finnish Immigrant Workers and the Church." In Karni and Ollila, Jr., (eds.), For the Common Good, pp. 23-64. JALAVA, Mauri A. "The Finnish-Canadian Cooperative Movement in Ontario." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 94-100. ________ "Finnish Cultural Associations in Ontario, 1945-1980." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 104-109. ________ "Radicalism or a "New Deal"?': The Unfolding World View of the Finnish Immigrants in Sudbury, 1883-1932." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 227-235. ________ "The Scandinavians as a Source of Settlers for the Dominion of Canada: The First Generation, 1867-1897." In Laine (ed.), ScandinavianCanadian Studies, pp. 3-14. KERO, Reino. "The Canadian Finns in Soviet Karelia in the 1930's." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 303-312. "Emigration from Finland to Canada before the First World War." The Lakehead University Review 9 (Spring, 1976): 7-16. "Emigration of Finns from North America to Soviet Karelia in the Early 1930s." In Karni, Kaups and Ollila, Jr., (eds.), The Finnish Experience, pp. 212-221. ________ "The Roots of Finnish-American Left-Wing Radicalism." In Publications of the Institute of General History, University of Turku 7 (1975). ________ "The Social Origins of the Left-Wing Radicals and `Church Finns' among Finnish Immigrants in North America." In Publications of the Institute of General History, University of Turku 5 (1973). KIVISTO, Peter. "The Decline of the Finnish-American Left, 1925-1 945." International Migration Review 17 (Spring, 1983): 65-94. ________ "Finnish Americans and the Homeland, 1918-1958." Journal of American Ethnic History 7 (Fall 1987): 7-28. KOSTIAINEN, Auvo. "Aino Kuusinen Kominternin asiamiehenä Amerikassa." Turun Historiallinen Arkisto 30 (1975), pp. 234-256. ________ "Contacts between the Finnish Labour Movement in the United States and Canada." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 33-48. ________ "The Finns and the Crisis over `Bolshevization' in the Workers' Party 1924-1925." In Karni, Kaups and Ollila, Jr., (eds.), The Finnish Experience, pp. 171-185. _______ "The Growth and Decline of the Finnish Labour Press in North America." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 257-269. ________ "The Tragic Crisis: Finnish-American Workers and the Civil War in Finland." In Karni and Ollila, Jr., (eds.), For the Common Good, pp. 2 17-235. ________ "Turbulent Times: The Last Years of Santeri Nuorteva in America, 1918-1920." Finnish Americana 3 (1980): 41-52. KOUHI, Christine. "Labour and Finnish Immigration to Thunder Bay, 1876-1914." The Lakehead University Review 9 (Spring 1976): 17-40. KRATS, Peter V. "Limited Loyalties: The Sudbury, Canada Finns and Their Institutions 1887-1935." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 188-200. KÄHÄRÄ, Tellervo. "Toivo Pajala-A Man of the People." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 424-438. ________ "Suomalaiset Nikkelialuella': Finns in the Sudbury Area, 1883-1939." Polyphony 5 (Spring/Summer 1983): 37-48. LAINE, Edward W. "Community in Crisis: The Finnish Canadian Quest for Cultural Identity, 1900-1979." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 1-9. ________ "Finnish Canadian Radicalism and Canadian Politics: The First Forty Years, 1900-1940." In Dahlie and Fernando (eds.), Ethnicity, Power and Politics, pp. 94-112. ________ "The Finnish Organization of Canada, 1923-1940, and the Development of a Finnish Canadian Culture." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 81-90. ________."'Kallista Perintöä-Precious Precious Legacy!' Finnish-Canadian Archives, 1882-1984." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 16-44. ________ "The Strait-Jacketing of Multiculturalism in Canada." Archivaria 10 (Summer, 1980): 225-237. LAULAJAINEN, Pertti. "Some Aspects of the Division of the Finnish Working Class Movement After the Civil War." Scandinavian Political Studies 2 (1979): 53-64. LINDSTRÖM-BEST, Varpu. "The Finnish Immigrant Community of Toronto, 1887-1913." Polyphony 6 (Spring/Summer 1984): 68-72. ________ "Finns in Canada." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 1-15. ________ "'Fist Press': A Study of the Finnish Canadian Handwritten Newspapers." Polyphony 3 (FaIl, 1981): 65-73. ________ "I Won't Be a Slave!'-Finnish Domestics in Canada, 1911-1930." In Jean Burnet (ed.), Looking in My Sister's Eyes: An Exploration in Women's History (Toronto, 1986), pp. 33-53. _______ "The Impact of Canadian Immigration Policy on Finnish Immigration, 1890-1978." SiirtolaisuuslMigration, 1981, no. 2: 5-15. ________ "The Socialist Party of Canada and the Finnish Connection, 1905-1911." In Dahlie and Fernando (eds.), Ethnicity, Power and Politics, pp. 113-122. _______ "Tailor-Maid: The Finnish Immigrant Community of Toronto before the First World War." In Robert F. Harney (ed.), Gathering Place: People and Neighbourhoods of Toronto, 1834-1945 (Toronto, 1985), pp.203-238. _______ "The Unbreachable Gulf: The Division in the Finnish Community of Toronto, 1902-1913." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 11-18. _______,and Allen SEAGER. "Toveritar and Finnish-Canadian Women, 1900-1930." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 133-153. MARTIN, J. David. "Folk Technology Retention: Finnish Folk Tools and Procedures in Mid-Canada and Central Finland." In Laine (ed.), Scandinavian-Canadian Studies, pp. 35-45. MARTIN, Maisa. "The Role of Code-Switching among Canadian Finnish-English Bilinguals." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 366-376. MORRISON, Jean. "Ethnicity and Class Consciousness: British, Finnish and Southern European Workers at the Canadian Lakehead before World War I." The Lakehead University Review 9, (Spring, 1976): 41-54. NEVAKIVI, Jukka. "Finland and the Cold War." Scandinavian Journal of History 10 (1985): 211-224. NORDSTRÖM, Ivar, as told to Satu REPO. "Lakehead in the Thirties: A Labour Militant Remembers." This Magazine 13 (July-August 1979): 40-45. OLLILA, Douglas J., Jr. "The Emergence of Radical Industrial Unionism in the Finnish Socialist Movement." In Publications of the Institute of General History, University of Turku, no. 7 (1975). PELTONIEMI, Teuvo. "Finnish Utopian Communities in North America." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 279-291. PETRYSHYN, J. "Class Conflict and Civil Liberties': The Origins and Activities of the Canadian Labor Defense League, 1925-1940." Labour 10 (Autumn, 1982): 39-63. PILLI, Arja. "The Art of Frugality: The Prospects for Publishing North American Finnish-Language Newspapers and the Role those Newspapers Played." Trans. by Aili Jarvenpa. Finnish Americana 7 (1986): 30-37. _______ "Finnish-Canadian Radicalism and the Government of Canada from the First World War to the Depression." In Karni (ed.), Finnish Diaspora 1, pp. 19-32. _______ "Moses Hahl-Socialist Agitator and Satirist." In Karni, Koivukangas and Laine (eds.), Finns in North America, pp. 398-412. ______ "Optimismin vuosista suureen talouspulaan: suomalaisena Kanadassa 1920-luvulla ja 1930-luvun alussa." In Eero Kuparinen (ed.), Studia Historica in Honorem Vilho Niitemaa (Tammisaari, 1987), pp. 267-290. PÄIVIÖ, Jules. "Finnish Canadians and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 77-80. RADFORTH, Ian. "Finnish Lumber Workers in Ontario, 1919-1946." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 23-34. RASMUSSEN, Mark. "Finnish Settlement in Rural Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada." Siirtolaisuus/Migration, 1982, no. 4: 3-15. REPO, Satu. "The Big Shop: Finnish Immigrant Tailors in Toronto." This Magazine, no. 9 (Nov.-Dec. 1975): 31-33. _______ "Rosvali and Voutilainen: Two Union Men Who Never Died." Labour, no. 8/9 (Autumn-Spring, 1981/1982): 79-102. SAARINEN, O.W. "Finns in Northeastern Ontario with Special Reference to the Sudbury Area." Laurentian University Review 15 (Nov. 1982): 41-54. "Geographic Perspectives on Finnish Canadian Immigration and Settlement." Polyphony 3 (Fall, 1981): 16-22. _______ "The Pattern and Impact of Finnish Settlement in Canada." Terra 77:4 (1967): 113-120. _______ "Perspectives on Finnish Settlement in the Sudbury Area." In Historic Sudbury 1: [edited by Carl M. Wallace and Mauri A. Jalava.], The Sudbury and District Historical Society, Occasional Paper no. 1 (Sudbury, 1979), pp. 33-41. _______ and G.O. TAPPER. "The Beaver Lake Finnish-Canadian Community: A Case Study of Ethnic Transition ans Influenced by the Variables of Yime and Spacial Networks, ca. 1907-1983." 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Theses, Dissertations and Other Unpublished Works
AHONEN, Jorma. "Ulkosuomalaistoiminnan synty ja alkuvaiheet vuosina 1918-1944." Pro gradu research paper, University of Turku, 1979. ALLEN, Martha Isobel Gerard. "A Survey of Finnish Cultural Economic and Political Development in this Sudbury District of Ontario." MA thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1954. HUHTA, Miika. "Siirtolaisuus Suomesta Kanadaan ennen ensimmäistä mailmansotaa ja suomalaisten sijoittuminen Kanadaan." MA thesis, University of Turku, 1982. JALAVA, Mauri A. "Archival Sources in the Repositories of Canada, Finland and the United States Relating to Finnish Canadians." Graduate research paper, Laurentian University, 1980. _______ "The Development of the Co-operative Movement in Ontario Among the Finnish Canadians." BA Honours essay, Laurentian University, 1978. ________ "The Finnish Community in Copper Cliff, 1885-1915." A paper presented at a meeting of the Sudbury and District Historical Society, November 14, 1980, at Sudbury, Ontario. _______ "The Political Reaction of Finnish Factions in the Sudbury Area to the Great Depression, 1929-1932." Paper presented to the 8th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association, Vancouver, October 1979. _______ "Radicalism or a `New Deal'? The Unfolding World View of the Finnish Immigrants in Sudbury, 1883-1932." MA thesis, Laurentian University, 1983. JOHNSON, Arthur A. "The Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company Limited's Relationship with North American Utopian Socialist Settlements from 1900-1905." MA thesis, University of Turku, 1979. KIDD, Bruce. "The Workers' Sports Movement in Canada, 1924-1940: The Radical Immigrant's Alternative." Paper presented to the 9th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association, Edmonton, October 1981. KRATS, Peter V. "Sudburyn Suomalaiset': Finnish Immigrant Activities in the Sudbury Area." MA thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1980. KUITUNEN, Alan Neil. "The Finnish-Canadian Socialist Movement, 1900-1918." Research paper, University of Calgary, 1979. KUITUNEN, Alan Neil. "Finnish Immigrants in Canada, 1880-1920." BA Honours essay, University of Calgary, 1978. LAINE, Edward W. "Finland's Road from Autonomy to Integration in the Russian Empire, 1808-1910." PhD dissertation, McGill University, 1974. LINDSTRÖM-BEST, Varpu. "Defiant Sisters: A Social History of the Finnish Immigrant Women in Canada, 1890-1930." PhD dissertation, York University, 1986. ________."The Finnish Immigrant Community of Toronto, 1887-1913." MA major research paper, York University, 1978. _______ "A History of Organized Socialism and Communism among the Finnish-Canadians from 1905 to 1929." BA Honours research paper, York University, 1974. MORRISON, Jean. "Community and Conflict," MA thesis, Lakehead University, 1974. PALOJÄRVI, Kaarina. "Nuori Matti Kurikka." MA thesis, University of Helsinki, 1970. PILLI, Aija. "Kanadansuomalaisen lehdistön synty ja kehitysvaiheet ajanjaksona 1901-1939." Licentiate thesis, University of Turku, 1979. "Project Bay Street (No, 1)." By C. Bell, J. Bick, et al. Port Arthur, 1974. RASMUSSEN, Mark. "The Geographic Impact of Finnish Settlement on the Thunder Bay Area of Northern Ontario." MA thesis, University of Alberta, 1978. ROBERTS, Barbara Ann. "'Purely Administrative Proceeding': The Management of Canadian Deportation, Montreal, 1900-1935." PhD dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1980. SALO, Allan Henry. "Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company, Limited: Finnish Millenarian Activity in British Columbia." MA thesis, University of British Columbia, 1978. SILLANPÄÄ, Lennard Paul Charles. "A Political and Social History of Canadians of Finnish Descent in the District of Sudbury." MA thesis, University of Helsinki, 1973. SILLANPÄÄ, Lennard Paul Charles. "The Political Behaviour of Canadians of Finnish Descent in the District of Sudbury." Licentiate thesis, University of Helsinki, 1976.